20 rules to follow

The following tips, tricks and techniques have served me well and though some may be specific to tropical macrophotography, the majority are widely applicable. Some are fairly basic though they are still deserving of mention and others are insights I’ve come to after much experimentation and failures. I try to avoid information covered ad nauseum in magazines and other blog sites regarding macro basics such as swaying your body, bracing, etc… and try to focus more on the integration of technical elements and the artistry of the photograph, chiefly through a spectrum of example photos. Note that this is the ‘photo light’ page, though it is still relatively photo heavy. The original has the same info but continues on with tips for specific types of insects and herptiles. You can either access the entire page by going HERE or access each section individually for slower internet connections.

The usual disclaimer: I am not responsible for any bodily harm that may and probably will come to you as a result of following said advice, yadda, yadda, yadda…on with the good stuff.

Extensively UPDATED 18/04/2013

In general

1) Behaviour

My cardinal rule is to always look for behaviour shots. 10 times out of 10 this will be more interesting than a regular, portrait style shot of an insect. Why? Because it tells a story, life history. So even if the shot is out of focus or not framed perfectly I would choose it over a well composed photo if it shows some interesting behaviour such as mating, predation, defence, feeding, etc…

A prime example is the phorid fly and the katydid shots below. The former represents to my knowledge the only photo on the internet of actual parasitization illustrating oviposition in these species.

However, I find even the katydid amongst the leaves (in ‘rule’ 5) to be a preferable shot to the original even though it is not technically as good. It shows the katydid ‘actively’ camouflaging.

Phorid fly (Apocephalus colombicus) parasitizing a leafcutter ant (Atta colombiana). This is the only shot I have ever seen of active parasitization by a phorid fly. Here you can see the striped ovipositor of the fly and even the white egg that is being inserted into the open jaws of the ant! I was absolutely thrilled to get this photo since I had only ever read about such behaviour and never seen it firsthand. I was even contacted by the researcher who had written an article first describing this parasitization scenario and was asked if he could use my photo. Photo taken in Mindo, Ecuador. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) attacking termite (Macrotermes carbonarius) soldier. The huge slicing jaws of the termite already found one casualty, the beheaded worker in the foreground. Photo taken in Kbal Spean, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

What’s interesting about this shot is that unlike with most prey which are subdued by pinning and tearing apart, here the raised gaster is actually injecting formic acid into the mouth of the heavily armoured termite. A drop can be seen at the raised gaster as well as on the termite’s dorsum. Photo taken in Kbal Spean, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

For behaviour shots, look to longer lenses. Although the mpe-65mm is my go to lens, I will often sacrifice magnification if it means that there’s less of a chance at disrupting natural behaviour. This is heavily species dependant. Flies for example are often skittish and therefore photographing mating, oviposition or parasitizing flies can be a challenge. Whereas spiders feeding on prey are generally fairly tolerant of invasions to their personal space. In general prey rather than predators are more likely to flee in response to a looming camera, as well as vision-based insects vs. the visually impaired.

2) Poses

Let’s face it though, the vast majority of the time insects and animals are not engaging in any kind of particularly interesting behaviour and even when they are, this is the time when they are especially sensitive to intrusions of their personal space. Therefore as a kind of distant 2nd place, try and find an interesting pose or angle. If it is moving take tons of shots, especially as it climbs over obstacles, hangs from leaves or tree limbs, this can result in interesting and dynamic poses which can separate your photo from similar but more static and conventional photos.

Leaf insect (Phyllium sp.). A combination of elements contribute to making this a keeper in my eyes. First is the nature of the subject itself, leaf insects aren’t especially common finds, particularly in the wild. Second is the accommodating pose, fully outstretched. Then there’s the pleasing natural light colour palette. Photo taken in Mt. Kinabalu national park, Malaysia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Leaf or tiger leech (Haemadipsa pictus). One of the most common animals found in South East Asian rainforests are leeches. However, taking a good photo of one is actually incredibly challenging. This shot is the result of several hundred attempts and hours lying on the ground attempting to get just the right combination of elements to make a good photo and naturally tons of bites. I went into the shoot with several requirements. One, I wanted the leech to be at full stretch, or else have a kind of sinuous ‘S’-shape to its body. Two, I wanted mostly natural light as the background, with soft colours. And 3 I wanted the head to be sharp. Ideally the rest of the body would be sharp as well, however, I knew that as the leech was waving around it would be near impossible to get it all in a single plane of focus, so would settle for just the head. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Here there were several different angles to choose from as it flattened itself against a leaf, but it didn’t feel dynamic enough, so I got it moving. It jumped to the ground and then I got a shot off as it climbed over this twig. The contrast between the red leaves and the green make it stand out and provide it in its natural background.

3) Planning (Separating the girls from the Women)

Think ahead! Having an idea of what kind of a photo you’d like beforehand is often one characteristic which separates amateurs from professionals. This is not to say that there’s no room for spontaneity and improvisation, however certain animals behave in certain stereotyped behaviours and so one can devise scenarios to capture that kind of behaviour. A guiding creative vision will give you more purpose and dedication as such one is likely to spend more time with any given subject. This further enables a subject to become more comfortable and thus resume more naturalistic behaviours. The below photos represent an envisioned scenario and how it was finally put together. Carpenter ants (Camponotus sp.) arch their gasters (abdomens) above their heads in a stereotyped response to threats.

Camponotus ant with horsefly (Tabanidae) prey. In this particular species the gaster is rarely lowered and remains arched above the head even when running, feeding or scavenging. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

On the same plant as the Camponotus model species are jumping spider mimics. These not only have the colouration and morphological features of their models, but also engage in behavioural mimicry. The latter of which is not limited to the forelegs substituting for antennae and held, waving above the head as in many other species of this genus. But also of the semi-permanently raised gaster as seen below. The spider when not within the immediate vicinity of the ants, however, will drop its abdomen to resume a more spider-like appearance. Thus to enhance the similarity between the model and mimic, I sought to capture the raised gaster behaviour.

Female ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne sp.). Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Now the previous two photos laid the groundwork for the following photo and shows the progression in my train of thought and the shaping of an idea for a very particular kind of photo. Having captured both the model and mimic separately, I now wanted to capture them within a single frame to highlight the similarity in the most conspicuous of ways. This of course meant dedicating a lot of time, choosing the most strategic of locations to maximize my chances and a lot of failed attempts. Initially I would have liked to have caught both spider and ant in perfect focus, however, capturing a single one of them in focus was already a challenge as both species tend to be very active. Therefore I had to adapt and settle for a different kind of shot. Below is the result. In the foreground is the ant-mimicking spider and in the background the model ant. I backed off on the magnification in order to increase my depth of field (an example of sacrificing magnification for behaviour). This also had the benefit of allowing more space for the running subjects. It is a very different kind of photo from one which is all in focus and one which demands more attention to the photo in order to note the subtle differences between subject and background.

Model and mimic in one frame. Although the photo doesn’t approach the kind of detail I had envisioned, and there was a significant loss of quality as I had to crop heavily, the photo undeniably achieves one of my goals of showing the similarity between model and mimic. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Having captured the above photo, I then had the idea of photographing both male and female within a single frame. Now I’d done this before with other sexually dimorphic species to illustrate the divergent morphological traits between male and female. This is usually achieved via low magnification bird’s eye view-type shots which come across as a little lifeless and textbook-reference style. Therefore I sought to photograph them in profile rather than dorsally. Unlike the above photo both would need to be in clear focus. Thus I decided to exploit a behavioural trait to capture my envisioned photo. Jumping spiders are visual predators, as much can be deduced by their enlarged anterior median eyes (AMEs). Therefore when in the presence of other animals and insects they are usually quite active and evasive. However, when in isolation and after they have grown accustomed to the photographer’s presence they are generally much more subdued (Nb. this may take upwards of 1/2hr). Therefore I isolated male and female on a single leaf suspended above the ground and encouraged the male to remain on one side of the leaf and the female on the reverse such that they were out of eyesight of one another and thus unable to excite and elicit too much movement from each other. After a few minutes they calmed down and I was able to slowly maneuver them into position by twirling the leaf or breathing on them gently such that they were in the same plane of focus. This sequence of events not only illustrates the importance of having a particular vision in mind, but also how observation and a background knowledge of biology and natural history can aid in the preparation and execution of a photo.

Male and female ant-mimicking spiders (Myrmarachne sp.). Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

4) In focus/out of focus/selective focus

With the advent of focus stacking (post processing software which combines the sharpness of each focal plane from a stack of photos), within the macro community there is an increasing movement towards incredibly sharp images with less attention paid to composition. This is perhaps a result of macro occupying more of a niche-genre within wildlife photography, a niche dominated by researchers and scientists whose goals of systematics and classification has historically differed from both the layman and the photographer as an artist.

A perfectly sharp photo can be a wonderful thing, one need only see the many indoor and outdoor studio stacking work that excellent photographers like Nikola Rahme and John Hallmen produce to become a convert. However, the conditions needed for such deep stacks are often prohibitive in the field in tropical rainforests. Why? 1) Temperature/time – not immediately evident, but most field stacks are done in temperate environments in the early morning when insects are sluggish due to the cold, and lighting is ideal. During midday animals become too active for effective focus stacking 2) Weather – Inclement weather is par for the course in the rainforest. Frequents rains and wind will destroy a stack just as easily as a moving insect. Though this may also be the case in part in temperate climates, the weather is much more unpredictable in a rainforest. Also lenses tend to fog up with condensation.

Additionally, I believe that a uniformly sharp image actually decreases one’s appreciation of an image as a result of there being too much detail. Just like how soft colour palettes appear more pleasing to the eye than sharp, overly saturated colours, I think that a balance of in-focus and out of focus elements are needed to create a more visually pleasing result.

Moreover, selective focus, out of focus (oof) background and foreground elements contribute to the impact of an image and can deliver a message more strongly or more subtly than an all-in-focus image might. The oof elements add complexity and draw the viewer in and invite a closer look. They behave somewhat like leading lines which pulls the viewer in as they attempt to puzzle out the exact nature of the oof element.

A parasitoid wasp (foreground) which lays its eggs within the eggs of another insect (background). This is one of my favourite photos for illustrating the so called ‘macroscape’. That is a background which contributes to the story of an image and enhances the overall impact. With a simple leaf as a background or with the eggs in perfect focus the feel of the image would change. Here the attention is directed towards the main subject, the wasp, however the eggs in the background also demand the question of what they are? what are they doing there? Is there a relationship between the two? A knowledge of the natural history of the wasp will add to one’s appreciation as well. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Paul Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

A weaver ant (Oecophylla smagardina) in the foreground and an ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne plataleoides) in the focal plane. Oecophylla serves as the model species. Blurring the details of the model makes the two appear even more similar than an entirely sharp image would, thus  forcing the viewer to work a little harder to piece together the differences between the two species. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Mother with spiderlings. Photo taken in Bach Ma national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

One can also create interesting effects with selective dof. Here the leaf blade appears almost 3-D. Though perhaps a little more dof might have benefited the head of the mantis, the tradeoffs warranted less rather than more dof in my opinion. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Selective dof allows one to highlight important anatomical features in a way that an all-in-focus image cannot. The stalk-eyed fly pictured here uses its stalks in ritualized male ‘combat’ in courtship battles with other males for the favour of females. Here the length of the stalks which disappear into the background appear much elongated. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

The last example in this section is of an ant-mimicking mirid bug on a leaf blade. OOF foreground elements can be tricky to pull off as they can quickly become simply distracting. Many people use oof foregrounds to frame the subject. Here I wanted the leaf blade to appear almost like a highway leading to the subject and drawing the viewer in. The soft colours make it more pleasing and acceptable than if the leaf had been in focus. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

4) Shooting a moving target

Always aim ahead of the subject and have your focus ready, that way as soon as it comes into the frame you can get 4-5 shots off before it exits the frame. With a little luck your focus and framing will be on for at least one of those shots. This is important not only with fast moving subjects but also at high magnification where despite a small and an objectively slow moving subject, the subject’s apparent speed increases relative to the magnification. Bottom line is that even a 1mm worm will look like its moving quickly at 5x magnification. The same general principle to those who shoot birds in flight, anticipate! The above shot of the ant model and mimic running from opposite directions within a single frame is a good example. For dSLR photographers, consider changing your mode to AI Servo which will automatically adjust your focus (lens dependent) and shoot continuously to enhance your odds of an in focus shot.

5) Eliciting behaviour

Eliciting natural behaviours ranges from the simple to the complex. In the former category is the subject’s response to predators. Although this mostly involves some kind of flight response, more intriguing behaviours can involve playing dead, defensive gaping, threat or startle displays, etc… When dealing with unknown, potentially toxic species like snakes or spiders it is best to inform oneself as much as possible in advance and to err on the side of caution (eg. the Mangshan pit viper (Protobothrops manghanensis) from China was only recently found to be the only member of the crotalidae to spray venom from its fangs). One should always be cautious as a cornered animal or insect is a potentially dangerous one, especially for those which possess chemical or physical defences. However, to completely respect and leave the subject alone as many naturalists avow would be to leave open a whole chapter of an animal’s natural history. Therefore respect the subject. Keep in mind that threat displays are highly energetic processes that demand a lot of resources (its like a shot of adrenaline and being on high alert) and cause a lot of stress in the animal. Therefore try to limit the amount of time spent photographing this behaviour. If possible alternate subjects so as not to place too much undue stress on a single one. If the threat display is one that is self-destructive to the subject then it is best to simply move on, as no photo in my opinion is worth compromising the well-being of an animal.

This goes contrary to what most people say and do, but an aggravated insect is an interesting one. I never intentionally harm an insect, and I certainly don’t condone those who do. But I do poke and prod it. This elicits many different behaviours which one just wouldn’t see otherwise. A perfect example of this is in this leaf mimicking katydid (Pterochroza ocellata). When closed it looks like a simple mimic, one could very simply have left it at that, however by pushing it around a little into a new position, it suddenly opened up in a threatening display, revealing a behaviour I had hitherto not been familiar with, and in my opinion, a much more interesting photo.

This is the original picture. Nice, but nothing special. In fact, now after further review, the black background and rather boring pose make this photo very average. Photo taken in Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

I then poked it and it jumped to the ground, this was so that one could see it in its natural habitat amongst the leaves. Now its camouflage is really shown to much better effect though the branches in the foreground are a major detraction. Photo taken in Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

However by far the best shot in this series is Pterochroza ocellata showing a threat display in response to my proddings. This behaviour would never have been witnessed otherwise and it did not harm on the insect to the best of my knowledge. Photo taken in Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

A view from the front shows the eyes, and the camouflaged wings which have separated, a good intermediate picture. Photo taken in Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

Other insects may not show as formidable a display as the katydid above, however, each will generally show some manner of defensive display. Ants will open their mandibles which generally looks a lot neater than when they are just walking around.

Ant protecting an extra floral nectary from, well, me. Note eyes out of focus could have been made a better picture by focus stacking. Difficult with this moving subject, or by getting a shot in a similar situation and photoshopping the out of focus elements. Photo taken in Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

Snakes, lizards and even some frogs may open their mouths wide in a behaviour known as defensive gaping.

Green vine snake (Oxybelis brevirostris) displaying defensive gaping. Photo taken in Bilsa Reserve, Ecuador. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

The flying lizard (Draco sp.) will not only show defensive gaping, but also open up its ‘wings’, large folds of skin held open by intercostal bones to increase its apparent size. Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Eliciting more complex behaviours is a tricky one. Not only is it obviously dependent on species, but it also involves some creativity on your part and improvisation to the circumstances. Not to mention that the absence of the photographer is typically a prerequisite. Therefore consider using a longer lens and be patient so that the subject can be familiar and comfortable with your presence. Such behaviours might include courtship and mating (various jumping spiders), parasitization, and species-specific behaviours (see below):

A) I’m almost reluctant to give this tip away because it’s that good! Snakes sense their environment via highly chemosensitive tongues which direct scent molecules to receptor neurons by constantly flicking their tongues. However capturing a snake with its tongue out (which seems to be the goal of most snake photos) can prove to be a challenge. Thus I have found that by exhaling in front of the snake you can prompt it into a flurry of tongue flicking as it attempts to pick up on the new and interesting smells from your breath. This technique takes the guesswork out of trying to catch it with its tongue out and increases your odds of getting a better shot.

Yellow eyelash pit viper (Bothriechis shlegelii). Photo taken in La Selva biological station, Costa Rica. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Smooth slug eating snake (Aplopeltura boa). Photo taken In Bukit Barisan national park, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

B) The best shots of lizards and reptiles involve territoriality. Even better than being threatened, anoles, chameleons and many other species will show dewlaps, change colours and show interesting behaviours difficult or impossible to elicit otherwise. So, if you bring along a small pocket mirror (like those used for makeup) you can sometimes elicit these displays. It’s best to draw as little attention to yourself as possible, so I recommend setting up the mirror facing the subject and having it resting on a tripod. In this manner you can step back and photograph. In the beginning try to remain as low-key as possible. Bump up the ISO and shoot without flash, then gradually introduce the flash as the subject becomes more and more distracted with the presence of its rival.

C) Some insects show stereotyped behaviour, like the digger wasp: A very interesting factoid about these Sphex wasps is that their behaviour is entirely programmed. In an experiment by Daniel Dennett, when the wasp arrived at its burrow with a prey item it left the prey to inspect the nest. The experimenter then moved the prey away about a foot. The wasp went looking for it, located it and then brought it back to the nest. Only it repeated the pattern, leaving the prey outside and inspecting the nest. This routine could be done any number of times without the wasp modifying its behaviour in the slightest. Such behaviour was then used as an argument by philosophers to explain how a variety of human actions though seemingly born of free will could simply be complex, innate behaviours. Keeping this in mind if you miss a shot the first time around you can remove the prey, watch the wasp look around for it, bring it back to the burrow and try again.

D) There’s always the old standby of throwing prey into the path of a predator. I’m sure we’ve all thrown grasshoppers or flies into the webs of spiders (as children of  course).

When you take the guesswork out of the situation (ie. where and when an event will occur) you can control it and thus maximize your ability to be ready with a good shot. Here, rather than throwing an insect into the spider web, I simply held my flashlight out with the beam intersecting the web. Flying insects attracted to the light collided with the web and I was ready to take detailed photos of the spider wrapping the prey. Photo taken in Jatun Sacha reserve, Ecuador. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

E) Less common perhaps is refrigerating the predator. It slows down the metabolism so that when it emerges from its ‘induced hibernation’ it is generally quite hungry. Another programmed behaviour to deal with the onset of winter. Therefore it is more likely to feed on prey. I don’t condone this method due to its artificiality, the fact that you need to have both a fridge and predator/prey, and it doesn’t always work. Worst of all, and a sticking point for me is that it can potentially harm the predator. This is especially true in the tropics vs. temperate environments. In the latter, insects and animals have adapted to colder nighttime temperatures, as well as vernal dips of the thermometer. Therefore when cooled (either naturally or artificially) they are less likely to be harmed (though it is still a possibility due to the rapid and uneven cooling of refrigeration).  In the tropics where year round temperatures are relatively constant, real harm can be done by refrigeration. After having heard about this technique on a different website I decided to try it in 2008 with a particularly difficult subject, Sabethes Cyaneus, possibly the most beautiful mosquito I have ever encountered. However, I found that it only resulted in artificial behaviour and postures and more often than not harms the subject. In conclusion this isn’t a technique that I approve of, but well here it is.

Native to the Amazon Basin, Sabethes cyaneus is a canopy mosquito which doesn’t often come down to the understory. It has a lofty flight pattern, is skittish and seldom lands. After numerous attempts to photograph it in situ, I finally decided to capture and cool it down and then re-attempt to photograph it. The results were very disappointing. Forget the poor overall quality of the photo for a moment and concentrate on the pose. The bow legged, hunched over posture is not one would see in the wild and is immediately apparent. It looks pathetic, like it is suffering from a bad cold. Certainly not the majestic specimen I had caught hours earlier. I was quite disappointed and didn’t use this technique again after this attempt. Photo taken in Manu national park, Peru. Copyright Paul Bertner 2008.

After such a poor result I did voluminous research on the subject and decided to prepare myself for my next encounter.

It was almost 2 years later in the rainforests of Guyana when I once again spotted the holy grail of mosquitoes. Below is the result of an approach that uses natural history, a little experimentation and originality. It’s important to know that mosquitoes navigate using CO2 and heat signatures as well as movement and vague visual cues to hone in on prey. Therefore, after having spotted the mosquito I donned a long-sleeved shirt (which I carry in my bag for dusk and dawn when the less colourful mosquitoes emerge) to eliminate the possibility of it landing and biting on a part of the arm which would be inaccessible to photograph. I then proffered it my hand to feed on… Nothing… It continued to buzz around my head. So I exhaled deeply onto my hand to both warm it above the ambient temperature and to increase the local concentration of carbon dioxide. I held my breath (both in anticipation and also so not to confuse the concentration gradient of the CO2 in air). The result was that after a few tentative landings and takeoffs, it finally settled onto my hand. I then waited a few moments (since they are most vigilant and prone to fly off immediately following a landing since animals are most likely to swat an intruder upon sensing a landing). I waited until it had inserted its proboscis and begun feeding and would be at its most distracted. Only then did I carefully maneuver my camera into place for the shot. Of course only later did I learn that it was a vector for yellow fever, an interesting fact which conveniently eluded my extensive research!

Fast forward 2 years to a different location and different technique but with the same subject. (Again, look past the poor quality of the photo itself and focus on the behaviour). Here I waited patiently, not moving for 1/2hr until finally the mosquito landed and I could take some more natural pictures without artificial cooling. This is an advocation for patience, planning and knowledge and appreciation of the subject rather than shortcuts which not only potentially harm the subject but will negatively impact the photo as well. Photo of Sabethes Cyaneus from the Kanuku mountains, Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

F) Nocturnal insects and birds are attracted to white flowers unlike their diurnal counterparts. This means that if you have either white, fake plastic flowers (okay, not the most common of paraphernalia) or some kind of white plastic, you can daub this with some kind of sugary substrate and you can attract a variety of moths, earwigs, ants and other nighttime critters. This really works the same way as an insect trap though. Set it up and then return to it several hours later or else you’re in for a very boring time.

G) Changing the subject’s physical environment. Anoles, chameleons and other colour changing animals will change their skin colour to match their surroundings. This might be a tough sell for the fast moving anoles, but chameleons aren’t a problem. Some Monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sp.), are called waxy monkey frogs for a reason. They spread wax over their bodies to both protect themselves from UV light, but more importantly to conserve moisture. If you place one of these frogs in a sunnier environment, it will begin to spread wax on itself. . . .

6) Developing a relationship with the subject (Creating a storyline)

One of my favourite subjects is the weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) in South East Asia and leafcutter/army ants in the New world. Therefore don’t dismiss even seemingly boring subjects, because they might surprise you with some fascinating bit of natural history.

Even in subjects as common as ants, brief, tender moments can be found by constantly observing a subject over the course of hours, days or months. Over time, one develops a relationship with them which translates into an intimacy which can often be shared through the lens.

Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) communicating via trophollaxis. Photo taken in Ankor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Moreover, a series of images on the same subject provides continuity and a story. This is important in generating interest if one decides to share ones images or be published.

Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) guarding a colony of mealy bugs which it protects in exchange for honeydew, a plant-phloem concentrate rich in sugars. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Weaver ant (Oecophylla smagardina) vs. termite (Macrotermes carbonarius). Photo taken in Kbal Spean, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Weaver ants have subdued a powerful predator, a hunting centipede (Scolopendra). Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

A backlit weaver ant bridges the gap between two leaves. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

If you enjoyed the photos in this section and hold an interest in Weaver ants then you might consider heading over to the articles section under The Weaver ant complex which documents in greater detail the lives of these fascinating ants and the arthropods in orbit around them.

7) The Photoseries

Similar to the above point which stresses continuity and creating a story, the photoseries is a collection of photos when grouped together create something more than each individual photo can by itself ie. the sum is greater than the parts. Attention should be paid to the order and to the continuity between photos. Below the message is both educational, illustrating the migration of the pigmented cells of the eye within the eyestalks of the snail. However, it is also meant to be light and humorous.

“The snail (Rhinocochlis nasuta) can’t see anything without its glasses”. Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Like this fungs gnat. Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

8) Experimentation

Try new things! This can be incredibly rewarding and by constantly challenging oneself, one never grows bored, even when photographing the same subject day in, day out. By experimentation one does not have to redefine the genre and create something totally new, but rather try a new technique for you. You never know when this new skill might prove useful or offer insight into a scenario. By adding different methods to your photography tool belt you not only expand the range of possibilities of the final product, but in effect you change the way your observe a scene from the very outset before even pressing the shutter.

I had never done an HDR image before, but when I did, I was immediately impressed with the result. It is understated as far as a lot of HDR’s go, but I really like the effect. In nature photography my own philosophy is to recreate what I saw faithfully. A lot of HDRs go overboard on the tone mapping, creating unrealistic, yet visually stunning photos. This is not my aim. My preference is to bring out the shadow and highlight details to a reasonable extent that would otherwise be lost, not to create a technicolor dream world.

Still deliberating whether or not to actually purchase the software since I don’t do enough HDR to merit spending the money, but I really enjoy the effect…the numerous shades of green are especially nice in this photo

If you scroll to the bottom of the page you can see my own experimental section which shows some different styles I am playing with.

9) Be original!

Create your own style! This creates some of the most satisfying, creative, wonderful photographs! I adore this photo, I have it as my screensaver, and I never get tired of looking at it. And the best part is…I took it! A lot of effort went into it both during the shoot and in post processing but I really like the effect. The key here is to think about a shot and how you want it to come out before you actually see the subject and starting shooting it. Before I go out on a shoot I think  about what I will see. If it’s raining and I know I’ll be walking by a pond, I know that my odds of seeing frogs will increase, so I consider how I would like to shoot these frogs before I’ve even left and then make adjustments fitting the scenario when/if I actually come across them in the field.

From the Peruvian Amazon, a reprocessed version of my earlier leafcutter. This one involved taking the camera raw version and exposing properly for the leaf, adjusting levels, sat., etc… and then importing into photoshop via a smart object. Then made a new smart object layer via copy, so that I could get another layer of the original image in Camera Raw, only this time adjust for the background. I adjusted the background in Camera Raw which updated the smart object copy layer in Photoshop. I then made a layer mask and painted the leaf and green background that I didn’t want changed. Merged copies and here we are. Advantage of this process is that it is less destructive than altering in a lossy manner with JPEG/other format since all the main RAW adjustments were made in Camera RAW. Then applied an unsharp mask to bring out the bristles and noise reduction for the red/orange background.

10) A numbers game

Two is usually better than one! Why? Because the subjects interact with one another. Even if it is not directly, they create tension in each other that is visible in the photograph.

These predaceous katydids (Phlugis sp.) were walking up and around the leaf. When they stopped in this position, it made for a great showdown. They are almost comical, one with the mouth full of food and the other looking like it wants to take a bite when suddenly they see themselves being watched, stop midpose and stare. Photo taken in Manu national park, Peru. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

Even if the tension is not present between the two (or more) subjects in photograph, that doesn’t mean that tension can’t be created for the viewer. The shot below with spider and ant illustrates what I mean. Despite the fact that neither subject is aware of the other, the viewer sees and understands the predator/prey relationship and thus the image is much stronger with the two subjects.

“A shadow of doubt” – Weaver ant with lynx spider in shadow. Photo taken in Ankgor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

In the following photo an understanding of biology and the natural history of the spider/cordyceps fungus helps one to understand the relationship between the two subjects and to appreciate the tension. Cordyceps is a fungus which infects all manner of arthropods and is usually species specific ie. one fungus kills one species rather than being a broad spectrum killer. Once Cordyceps has infected the individual, it changes its behaviour, causing the infected host to disregard its own safety and biological preservation and to climb to a high point. Having attained that viewpoint, the infected individual will grasp the twig, leaf or whatever surface in a deathly embrace and die. There Cordyceps will remain until such a point as is ideal for dissemination of its spores.

Therefore the similar posture and incredible proximity between the living and the dead individual recreates the drama of this interrelationship between fungus and host.

Lynx spider (Hamataliwa sp.) sharing a leaf with a cordyceps infected spider. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

In essence, shooting 2 subjects or more is the difference between shooting a portrait and illustrating behaviour.

Pheidologeton supermajor carrying minor workers. Size difference shows one of the greatest size discrepancies of any ant species! Photo taken in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Ask yourself what message you want to convey. A clear purpose will help shape the composition of your photo. Below, I chose a tight crop on the mpe, leaving as little distance as possible between the subjects to illustrate the diversity found in Kinabalu national park.

Diversity. A harvestman, a cicadellid and a bush frog, all within centimetres of each other in a single frame of the mpe. Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

11) A note on catchlights and specular highlights

There is a place for these as they can add texture and interest to a photo, but they can also be distracting and destroy a photo’s potential. This really needs to be looked at on a case by case basis. However, generally, if the catchlights are in the eyes and are well diffused then the texture and colours are usually preserved and I will leave them as they are. If the diffusion has failed and the highlights interrupt a pattern or wash out the colours, then I will clone and repair it out. I do this mostly in reptile and amphibian eyes, where the damage is much easier to repair in the single eye than in the many faceted ommatidia of insects. Below is an example of a repair job of a flash shot on a snail shell that has become way too distracting. I didn’t use any kind of diffusion on this shot. With post processing in photoshop, I have cloned and repaired most of the damage. I did this very slowly at a magnification of 700X. However, I found the efforts worthwhile because I really liked the pose of the snail.

Edited snail (Macrochylamys sp.). Here the detail has been restored to the snail making, in my opinion a better picture. Note, better diffusion from the get-go would have solved this problem.

This second shot shows the same snail as it was originally shot.

Snail (Macrochylamys sp.). Here the reflections off the shell and body are distracting and really detract from the overall quality of the image.

Flying lizard (Draco sp.) portrait. Harsh catchlights in the eyes have been cloned out. While some might argue that this creates a flatter image, I personally prefer the overall look and think it creates more depth and complements the black background. Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

In this ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne sp.) the catchlights would have been quite easy to clone out. However, I feel like they add to the photo, behaving like accents, drawing even more attention the the bright and beautiful eyes. Photo taken in Selangor, Malaysia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

12) Knowing your equipment


Many people use the ETTL setting on their flash without ever bothering to learn how to use the manual setting. This is a mistake. It always pays to know the ins and outs of your equipment. I used to use ETTL, but every so often I would here the flash charging and then it would let out a burst and the whole scene was whited out. This was due to a miscommunication between the flash and camera body. This happened often enough that I started using the manual flash settings and have since been much more satisfied. For the mpe generally I use 1/8th flash power (f.p.) at 1-2x mag, 1/4 f.p. for 3-4x mag., and 1/2-1/1 f.p. for 4x-5x mag. Settings will vary depending on your ISO, aperture and shutterspeed, and amount of diffusion. The above settings is for a ‘typical’ macro setting of ISO 100, f/11 and 1/200 sec.

This knowledge is especially important for creative lighting control like backlighting, stroboscopic lighting and 2nd curtain flash settings whose primary aim is not necessarily a uniformly exposed image. I find my photos are more adequately exposed now that I have control of this element as well. It will also help you in your overall composition and to understand the general principles of light and will get you further involved in all technical aspects. Besides, there are often small functions that can make things much easier, like the function in the MT-24EX which allows a double tap of the shutter to turn on the macro lights. Not a life changer but something that can make life a little easier.

13) Horizons

The horizon constitutes the surface that the insect is on, be it leaf or ground or tree. Try and tilt the angle to have the leading lines of the subject drawing you in. This is preferable to straight horizons which can appear flat and uninteresting. The eye is drawn to circular, rounded and organic shapes which appear more natural, therefore try and incorporate these rather than flat, angular lines.

The gentle slope of the buttress root which forms the horizon is a pleasing curve which draws the viewer in and complements the backlit harvestman. Rounded aperture blades in the bokeh are also pleasing to the eye. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Alternatively you can incorporate curves and and rounded shapes which are more visually appealing than harsh straight lines.

Female ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne assimilis). Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

14) The Macroscape

One way in which my style differs from other people’s is that I like interesting backgrounds. A lot of macro is aimed to isolate the subject from the background and have a nice bokeh. This can make for some lovely photographs and especially portraits, true. However, busy backgrounds provide a lot to look at and I will generally look at a photo a lot longer when it has an interesting background than one that is simple, and straight forward. This is particularly difficult to do in night photography which the majority of my shots are, however, I try and shoot at smaller apertures to gain more detail from the surroundings. Tread carefully when following this point as it is very easy to have too busy a background. This point may seem to be in contradiction with point 4 (selective focus of the subject), however it need not be.

Macroscape def. – The landscape of an image taken at high magnification which does not include the subject. This can be the background and/or foreground, it is the space into which the subject is placed.

The macro landscape is one of the most difficult elements to master since it requires an incredible attention to detail and to composition. It requires an intimate knowledge of the relationship between dof and aperture size for that particular lens all while maintaining focus on the subject, appropriate lighting, and other factors necessary for a good photo. Indeed it is so demanding a skill that I often neglect it in favour of tighter, more out of focus compositions concentrating on the subject(s). However, I find I am most often rewarded with my best photos when I take the macroscape into consideration.

Moss mantis (Haania sp.). Photo taken in Preah Monivong national park, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Weaver ants in flowers. Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

One way I have found of exploiting the background and having it complement the subject is through the use of backlighting which can highlight or even create details that were either absent or only faintly visible before.

Backlighting has brought both detail and a silvery, ethereal mood to the image of this harvestman on a hairy leaf. Photo taken in Kerinci Seblat national park, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Shining from behind, backlighting shows the vascular system and cellular structure of the leaf that would have been impossible with conventional frontal lighting. In this manner, the leaf itself becomes a focal point of interest in addition to the translucent katydid. Photo taken in Kerinci Seblat national park, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

An early attempt which is not entirely successful but still shows my interest in busy backgrounds which dates back to my introduction to photography.

The lichen on this fallen tree trunk has provided a very detailed and interesting mosaic pattern. Rather than go for the closeup of the ants and lose this wonderful backdrop, I elected to shoot with a 100mm macro from further away. This is one of my earlier shots and so composition and light aren’t what I would like them to be, but I love the background. Photo taken in Endau-Rompin national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner, 2009.

A more recent attempt illustrates how a complex, detailed background can add interest by creating a ‘where’s Waldo’ type of scenario, where a camouflaged subject might remain hidden until it finally pops into view. This can be a rewarding type of photo for the viewer, though once the subject is found it rarely holds the interest for much longer.

A camouflaged running crab spider on tree trunk. Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

15) Focal points

Let’s add a disclaimer to the above point. There should be a focal point of interest to the photo. Too many disparate elements and the viewer gets lost. Let the eye naturally go to the focal point and then allow it to naturally radiate out to take in the small intricacies of the scene. So if there are additional, small insects in the background that aren’t visible upon first viewing. Or any in focus background/foreground points of interest, etc…

The focal point is almost always in the focal plane and thus sharp (at least in part). This point ties in well with rule 4 (selective focus). The juxtaposition between model and mimic here is evident but not too overstated thanks to the oof elements.

Focal point is the net-winged beetle (Lycidae) in the foreground. However, the eye is secondarily drawn to the March fly (Plecia sp.) in the oof background. Photo taken in Kinabalu national park, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

However, there are always exceptions to the rule. Below shows how a uniformly sharp image can be a little dazzling, and overwhelming with lots to look at. Here the eye doesn’t even know where to begin, and that’s the point.

A colourful flock of barklice (Psocoptera). Photo taken in Cat tien natinoal park, Vietnma. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

16) The notetaker

Make notes while taking your photos. If you have a 1Ds series canon, lucky you! It has a voice recorder function. If not use a separate tape recorder or the video function on your camera or just a pen and paper. This is especially useful when you go over the same trail or grounds over again. If you spot a particular insect that has made a nest or a spider web that you particularly like, make a note of it. If you see an insect and you try and get a specific pose but don’t manage to get it this time around make a note of it so that next time you can try again. If there’s a setting that you found particularly useful or innovative record it. Afterwards you probably will forget, and you will also regret it.

17) Safety/Reference shot

If you are worried more about the insect than the composition take a ‘safety shot’ first. At a distance that you find appropriate take a photo so that if you scare it upon approach you will have at least one half-decent shot. This is especially true for flies and winged insects and day time photography. You would be amazed at the effectiveness of the ubiquitous strategy of falling to the ground and disappearing into the fallen leaves. In general night time animals are more tolerant of the photographer’s presence and thus one can approach more closely with less of fear of scaring the subject. Why? One important reason is that nocturnal animals are not primarily vision-based creatures but rely on a variety of other faculties like olfaction, hearing, etc…

The reference shot in all likelihood will not be a photo that you are satisfied with, but it’s better than no shot at all. It’s usually best to take an initial shot then approach a couple of steps  and take another shot. Repeat until you get to the desired distance and can shoot the subject as you intended to from the beginning.


Always carry a LOT of spare batteries and LOTS of memory cards. I carry 24 AA’s (40 when travelling remotely), 3 LPE6 batteries, (4) 16GB, (2) 64GB and (1) 8GB CF cards. This allows me to shoot as much as I want and not be limited. I often go through a 64GB card and 16 AA batteries in a single day of shooting.

Be prepared. Always. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

If you are constantly worried about using up too much space or power you will miss out on opportunities. I can shoot however I want. If I want to try my hand at an HDR panoramic focus stack, taking 40+ photos to be merged into one then I don’t feel constrained or that I will have to sacrifice this opportunity in order to shoot another one. John Hallmen typically does 70+ natural light exposures. Experimenting can be seen by some as useless or a waste, or they simply get so comfortable with a certain type of photography that they don’t even realize how uniform their own portfolio has become. However experimentation leads to some really awesome and interesting shots, but first you have to go through lots of duds and throwaways. Get over the first hurdle and don’t limit yourself. Going hand in hand with this is to make sure of the compatibility of your equipment. If you can have your flashes, camera, flashlight, etc…all on matching batteries this makes life a lot easier. It means you don’t have to carry around tons of different chargers and if one gets lost you are not totally screwed.

[Nb. Most flashes take AAs. However, finding a good LED and UV flashlight that uses AAs required some research (Fenix L2D and Tank 007, respectively FYI)]

I ALWAYS use rechargeable batteries and I don’t know why others don’t use them as much as they should! I carry a spare set of lithium disposables (for emergencies only) which I never use. Otherwise I use my rechargeables exclusively, of which I have found Sanyo eneloops to be the best (high capacity XX Eneloop professional 2,450 mAh).

Nb. A good battery recharger will also be needed. This is not an exhaustive review of battery rechargers, though it is a point deserving of some elaboration. Off the shelf solutions typically charge between 400-600 mAh/hr which is the industry standard rate to preserve battery longevity. The downside of this low delivered amperage is that batteries take exceedingly long to charge, often prohibitively so (up to 4hrs for four 2,500 mAh AA batteries). This is unacceptable to me since I might go through as many as 16 AA batteries in a single day.

Keep in mind that in the rainforest you may be working remotely and therefore have limited access to electricity. When working from solar panels or from a generator which supplies only a few hours of power/day a different kind of charger is needed. Fortunately there are several options.

1) 15 minute quick chargers – Companies like Duracell and Energizer have come out with these fast chargers which will charge standard 1,850 mAh NiCad/Ni-Mh batteries in about 15 minutes and 2,500 mAh in about 18-20 minutes. These deliver almost 4 times the industry standard amount of amperage over a given time. This effectively reduces the lifespan of the battery from the advertised value (500 charges for Eneloop) to probably less than half. In fact it delivers so much energy, so quickly that excess develops as heat and are hot to the touch. A fan incorporated into the charger helps cool the batteries. Despite negative online reviews I have found these chargers invaluable. Moreover, after 1 year most batteries are only able to hold approximately 75% of their charge, and even less in following years. It is doubtful that even a significant reduction in their lifespan will effect most users.

2) Variable output chargers – There are many of these on the market, however, the most highly rated are Maha Powerex (MH-C800S, etc…) and Lacrosse (BC-700/BC-1000 models). These have buttons which allow the user to toggle between different output levels. 200mAh for slow charging and up to 1000mAh for fast charging. Nb. This is still well below the level of the fast chargers above. However, it is useful for charging when in locations that have a steady access to power as well as places that are less predictable.

Look around! I have a friend who has a nikon twin flash which uses CR123A batteries. He was using expensive disposables because he simply didn’t know that there were rechargeables for this battery type. So do your research!

19) Manual or Automatic focusing macro lens?

A lot of people shoot manual and a lot of the ‘experts’ will tell you to shoot manual. I went to a camera store specifically looking for the canon automatic macro lens (Canon 100mm f/2.8 USM). At this time I had  a Zeiss which is exclusively manual on my canon. The sales person kept on telling me: “You should shoot manual, what do you need an automatic for? Your Zeiss is better than the canon, yadda, yadda, yadda…” Although I shoot in manual mode 90% of the time, automatic is very useful if you have to manipulate a leaf or hold a stem. It is just not possible to do this, while changing the focus ring, while holding your flashlight, while adjusting your flash heads to the optimal position. Remove some of the burden and in this case use your automatic setting. Yes it can search and be tedious at times but having the function is much better than being without it. I missed lots of shots when I just had the so-called superior Zeiss.

On the other hand…

Electronically controlled aperture rings are prone to failure. Twice I have had the mpe automatic diaphragm (which controls the aperture) fail on me. The result was that I was left with a lens which was left in the default position of f/2.8. For the mpe that is an essentially useless aperture. With the Zeiss and its manually controlled aperture however, I will never have to worry about that.

20) Light and lighting

This is a huge topic and will differentiate great photos from mediocre ones even if you have gotten all the other elements right. Few photographers would argue that lighting is the most important aspect of photography. With its ability to transform drab, uninteresting landscapes into technicolour marvels, or change the gaudy into the gritty B+W of a sin city-esque world. Relatively recently HDR has expanded not only the dynamic range but also our expectations. We are no longer content with a simple “out of camera photo” but seek a more accurate recreation of the ‘visual experience’ if not the actual reality of the time and place (not to mention the creative liberties it permits for the photographer-artist).

Interestingly, the crucial importance of lighting in the field of Macro is often overshadowed by the macro-specific challenges that the photographer faces – notably depth of field (dof). This is often to the detriment of the quality of the photograph. As mentioned earlier the priority for most photographers seems to be on extending the focus as much as possible, artificially in post processing if need be. As such, one does not see creative lighting (including HDR), unique compositions, or experimentation in general nearly as much as in other fields of photography. Rather, macro often places undue emphasis on the subject and its ‘interestingness’ rather than on the beauty of the photo as a whole.

This obsession on ‘perfect’ back to front sharpness is a mistake and one that often has unseen costs. For example, not only will you lose many potential subject opportunities by tethering yourself to a focus rail and tripod (too slow and bulky), but you are handicapped before even beginning because your creative approach to the lighting, and composition will be more limited.


For dramatic, professional looking portraits nothing really compares to a black background. It adds emphasis and contrast and can be adapted to a wide variety of applications. This is why it is often my most frequently used background. Although I prefer natural light from an artistic perspective, black (or white) is more applicable within the professional world of selling photos and for portraiture work where one seeks to eliminate all distracting elements. When coupled with working at night, one has complete control over lighting and thus can create some wonderful results that are simply not possible with the intrusion of ambient light.

Green large eyed pit viper (Trimeresurus macrops). Taken at night, this was shot with the mpe-65mm lens from about 2cm away to get as much detail as possible and differentiate it from zoo portraiture which has the constraints of glass and working distance from subject. A single flash directed from above and in front was used in order to create dramatic shadows. Photo taken in Virachey national park, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Similar to above setup but with MT-24EX twin flash on ratio control, to provide more flash from overhead bulb and a small amount of light from a side oriented flash. Oriental whip snake (Ahaetulla prasina). Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

When detail is a priority then a white background is ideal. Light bounces or is reflected (rather than absorbed) more readily off of white than coloured surfaces, thus providing more detail. For an abundance of examples you can check out the Meet your neighbours initiative which seeks to photodocument species without distracting backgrounds.

Flash and Diffusion

Due to the size of subjects generally encountered in macro there is often little or no space between the subject and the substrate it is on. As a result, little ambient light is able to penetrate the areas underneath the subject, creating harsh shadows. In consequence flash is the macrophotographer’s best friend. However, flash without diffusion creates unflattering catchlights, specular highlights and glare. Diffuse light is especially important for shiny, metallic or reflective/iridescent subjects. Macro photographers are constantly in a battle to find that ideal combination of diffusive materials, often cobbled together from dollar store bits and pieces and recycling bins to create the ‘perfect diffuser’.

In the rainforest a diffuser poses a particularly annoying problem due to the constant humidity and dense foliage which obstructs any protruding materials. Paper towels, and tissue paper quickly becomes soggy and unusable. Other organic materials grow fungus and mould over time. If you are moving from one camp to another then cardboard snoots or coke can diffusers get mashed in backpacks during travel. I have tried most of these diffuser solutions in one form or another and have found that the best solution is either something professionally made like a Lumiquest softbox which won’t deteriorate and can be treated relatively harshly (not to mention that it folds down to save space) or else a simpler solution like a doubled over sheet of vellum paper. The latter can be obtained at arts and crafts stores, is organic and so will deteriorate over time, however, it is flexible and resilient and it can be easily cut to fit over your flash heads. Not to mention that it’s cheap.

Your diffusion setup will evolve over time and it will essentially create a ‘light profile’ from which you will be able to differentiate your photos from those of other people. It is one of the essential ingredients in the fingerprint of what constitutes YOUR photo.

The evolving setup

I first started in 2009 with a Pentax K200D and 100mm macro and simply shot with the onboard flash without any diffusion.

The results aren’t actually as bad as you’d think, but that is owing more to the fact that an onboard flash is much less powerful than a dedicated flash unit. Also the increased working distance of the 100mm lens buffers some of the harshness. The same subject would look much different when shot with an onboard flash and the mpe-65mm. Harlequin treefrog (Rhacophoris pardalis). Photo taken in Danum Valley, Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2009.

I then changed setup in 2010 to the Canon 5DII/mpe-65mm lens/MT-24EX twin flash, also without any diffusion.

Notice the small, harsh catchlights in the eyes indicative of a smaller apparent light source. There is also a harshness to the light reflecting off the leaf surface and the hairs of the body. Jumping spider with membracid prey. Photo taken in Mahdia, Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

Partway through my 2010 Guyana trip I added a triple layer of vellum paper which had much nicer diffusion but was unwieldy and often sagged in the humidity to obstruct the lens. It was only a temporary fix.

Iridescent blue beetle. Photo taken at the Kurupukari, Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2010.

In 2011 I added stofen diffusers hot-glued to gary fong puffer diffusers to create my 1st generation diffuser.

Seen with one diffuser on and one off. Jumping spider (Lyssomanes sp.?). Photo taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

In 2012 I added a doubled over vellum light tent to wrap around the front of the lens.

Despite good results I found the light tent too obtrusive in the jungle. Yellow eyelash pit viper (Bothriechis schlegelii). Photo taken in La Selva Biological station. Copyright Paul Bertner 2012.

In 2013 I had a lot of flash issues. One of the twin flash heads died leaving me with only one working. I therefore had a chance to experiment a lot with my light. I did away with the vellum light tent which I found too obtrusive and added a modified lumiquest softbox III which I modded to the twin flash heads so that it fitted more tightly and didn’t project forward over the lens too much. I also packed the stofens with insulating foam, and added some cut sheets of vellum and some leftover pieces of the Lumiquest lightbox diffusion material.

Initially I started with stofens+gary fong diffusers packed with insulating foam and vellum paper. I had a modified lumiquest III on one flash head A, but not B. The logic was that flash head A would be more heavily diffused and create the overhead light and would be shot at higher power. Flash head B would provide lighting from the side which creates more detail. It would be shot at a lower power but also have one less layer of diffusion.

You can see the reflections in the eye of the more heavily diffused flash head A on the left and the less diffused flash head B on the right. Malayan horned frog (Megoprhys nasuta). Photo taken in Gunung Leuser national park, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

When one of the flash heads died I decided to go with simply with the same setup as flash head A.

Lighting worked well for subjects from 1-2X. Beyond that and there were harsh shadows from insufficient light. Portia labiata. Photo taken in Gunung Leuser national park, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Finally when I replaced the twin flash with another unit I also capped flash head B with a modified Lumiquest box in addition to the other diffusion already present. However the two lightboxes were too bulky and interfered with one another and so I only used them together with very iridescent and difficult subjects. The rest of the time I used the Lumiquest box on only one of the flash heads.

Iridescent green cockroach. Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Natural Light (NL)

NL shots usually have nice soft backgrounds without harsh contrasts, or specular highlights. These effects can be made more pronounced the larger the aperture (smaller f stop). In the rainforest, to combat the poor light quality under the canopy one has to use quite a large aperture (this creates a shallow depth of field which in some cases can create a 3D feel), only a medium-slow shutter a higher ISO than one would like and often a bit of fill flash.

The more distance you can give yourself with a longer lens, the more light you can potentially have entering the lens and hitting the sensor. Therefore permitting reasonable shutter speeds and ISOs. At 1X magnification and above however, you will need slow shutter speeds, high ISOs and most probably fill flash. This was shot with a 100mm macro at f/3.5, s 1/125 and ISO 400 without a tripod. Oriental whip snake (Ahaetulla prasina). Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

If shooting at 1X magnification and above try twisting the leaf, branch or substrate on which the subject is located so as to shoot directly into the sky to get more light. Cordyceps infected clubionid spider. f/7.1, s 1/25s, ISO 1600 without a tripod. Photo taken in Cuc Phuong national park, Vietnam. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

NL shots can be more difficult for several reasons:

1) Requires a longer shutter speed; This necessitates not only a more stable platform from which to shoot, but also that the subject remain motionless

2) You need to choose your backgrounds carefully to complement the subject appropriately

3) You may need to diffuse the light if it is too harsh, so one must keep an eye towards what kind of light is hitting the subject: is it bright, shaded, diffused from cloud cover, etc…

An all natural light shot is not always a feasible solution (especially in the rainforest) and so a compromise solution can be to use fill flash. This is where a flash is used to fill in the shadows and complement the NL.

Below is an earlier attempt at NL with fill flash and illustrates the difficulties and common pitfalls. Here you can see the flash in the eye, however the flash power was set to 1/32, just enough to brighten up the subject, while the shutter speed was long enough to expose the background sufficiently for some colour (though it is still underexposed). Proper overall exposure takes practice and can be tricky especially under the canopy where light conditions are constantly changing due to the patchiness of light. However the results can be well worth the effort.

Treefrog shot with natural light and fill flash. Photo taken in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Later efforts involving a tripod produced the photos below. However, without a tripod it would be very difficult to achieve such results. These are also stationary subjects, with moving subjects under the rainforest canopy, NL must be complemented with flash.

Orbweaver spider. The complementary beige colours of subject and background didn’t come through with flash (which gave a black background and a much deeper brown to the image as a whole). Photo taken in Winfield, Canada. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

Crab spider with hoverfly taken at sunset, natural light. Photo taken in Winfield, Canada. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.


If you wish to see a prime example of this kind of photography “THE” place to start in my opinion is with an excellent macrophotographer who produces absolutely amazing natural light shots: John Hallmen.

John Hallmen’s Fall beetle on Heather. Cryptocephalus sericeus, 6mm These beetles have the habit of releasing their grip and fall to the ground as you get closer. In other words you need to be extra careful when sneaking up on them. Stacked from 13 natural light exposures in Helicon Focus. Exposure time: 1/4s, Aperture: f7.1, ISO: 200. Copyright John Hallmen.




More to Come






3 Responses to 20 rules to follow

  1. Dina says:

    Great tips, I relly enjoyed reading this post. Thanks a lot for sharing!
    Enjoy your weekend. :-)
    Greetings from the Far North

  2. Excellent photos and advice, the best collection of macro tips that I have seen anywhere. Also appreciate you sharing your journey with diffusion, which is an ongoing challenge depending on the lens and flash/flashes you are using.

    • pbertner says:

      Thanks Adrian,
      I am just tired of magazine articles and blogs which retread the same ground over and over without offering any kind of insight, or where you might pick up one or two pointers after having sifted through an entire book’s worth of info. I tried to make this more personal and borne of my own experiences, so hopefully it’s info that one has hopefully not come across before, or at least is presented in a different way.

      Anyways I’m glad you found it useful.

      Happy macro shooting,

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s