Photography: Tips, tricks and techniques

The following tips, tricks and techniques have served me well and though some may be specific to tropical macrophotography, the majority are widely applicable. Some are fairly basic though they are still deserving of mention and others are insights I’ve come to after much experimentation and failures. I try to avoid information covered ad nauseum in magazines and other blog sites regarding macro basics such as swaying your body, bracing, etc… and try to focus more on the integration of technical elements and the artistry of the photograph, chiefly through a spectrum of example photos. Note that this is quite a photo heavy page, therefore if loading is a problem then please refer to the drop-down menu under “tips, tricks and techniques” and each section will be represented under its own heading and reproduced faithfully from the original seen here.

The usual disclaimer: I am not responsible for any bodily harm that may and probably will come to you as a result of following said advice, yadda, yadda, yadda…on with the good stuff. 

In general


1) Behaviour

My cardinal rule is to always look for behaviour shots. 10 times out of 10 this will be more interesting than a regular, portrait style shot of an insect. Why? Because it tells a story, life history. So even if the shot is out of focus or not framed perfectly I would choose it over a well composed photo if it shows some interesting behaviour such as mating, predation, defence, feeding, etc… A prime example is the phorid fly and the katydid shots below. I find even the katydid amongst the leaves (in ‘rule’ 5) to be a preferable shot to the original even though it is not technically as good. It shows the katydid ‘actively’ camouflaging. Also look to longer lenses. Although the mpe-65mm is my go to lens, I will often sacrifice magnification if it means that there’s less of a chance at disrupting natural behaviour. This is heavily species dependant. Flies for example are often skittish and therefore photographing mating, oviposition or parasitizing flies can be a challenge. Whereas spiders feeding on prey are generally fairly tolerant of invasions to their personal space. In general prey rather than predators are more likely to flee in response to a looming camera, as well as vision-based insects vs. the visually impaired.

Phorid fly (Apocephalus colombicus) parasitizing a leafcutter ant (Atta colombiana). This is the only shot I have ever seen of active parasitization by a phorid fly. Here you can see the striped ovipositor of the fly and even the white egg that is being inserted into the open jaws of the ant! I was absolutely thrilled to get this photo since I had only ever read about such behaviour and never seen it firsthand. I was even contacted by the researcher who had written an article first describing this parasitization scenario and was asked if he could use my photo. Photo taken in Mindo, Ecuador. Copyright Paul Bertner 2011.

Weaver ants (Oecophylla smagardina) attacking termite (Macrotermes carbonarius) soldier. The huge slicing jaws of the termite already found one casualty, the beheaded worker in the foreground. Photo taken in Kbal Spean, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

What’s interesting about this shot is that unlike with most prey which are subdued by pinning and tearing apart, here the raised gasger is actually injecting formic acid into the mouth of the heavily armoured termite. A drop can be seen at the raised gaster as well as on the termite’s dorsum. Photo taken in Kbal Spean, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

2) Poses

Let’s face it though, the vast majority of the time insects and animals are not engaging in any kind of particularly interesting behaviour and even when they are, this is the time when they are especially sensitive to intrusions of their personal space. Therefore as a kind of distant 2nd place, try and find an interesting pose or angle. If it is moving take tons of shots, especially as it climbs over obstacles, this can result in interesting and dynamic poses which can separate your photo from similar but more static and conventional photos.

Leaf insect (Phyllium sp.). A combination of elements contribute to making this a keeper in my eyes. First is the nature of the subject itself, leaf insects aren’t especially common finds, particularly in the wild. Second is the accommodating pose, fully outstretched. Then there’s the pleasing natural light colour palette. Photo taken in Mt. Kinabalu national park, Malaysia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Leaf or tiger leech (Haemadipsa pictus). One of the most common animals found in South East Asian rainforests are leeches. However, taking a good photo of one is actually incredibly challenging. This shot is the result of several hundred attempts and hours lying on the ground attempting to get just the right combination of elements to make a good photo and naturally tons of bites. I went into the shoot with several requirements. One, I wanted the leech to be at full stretch, or else have a kind of sinuous ‘S’-shape to its body. Two, I wanted mostly natural light as the background, with soft colours. And 3 I wanted the head to be sharp. Ideally the rest of the body would be sharp as well, however, I knew that as the leech was waving around it would be near impossible to get it all in a single plane of focus, so would settle for just the head. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Here there were several different angles to choose from as it flattened itself against a leaf, but it didn’t feel dynamic enough, so I got it moving. It jumped to the ground and then I got a shot off as it climbed over this twig. The contrast between the red leaves and the green make it stand out and provide it in its natural background.

3) Planning

Think ahead! Having an idea of what kind of a photo you’d like beforehand is often one characteristic which separates amateurs from professionals. This is not to say that there’s no room for spontaneity and improvisation, however certain animals behave in certain stereotyped behaviours and so one can devise scenarios to capture that kind of behaviour. A guiding creative vision will give you more purpose and dedication as such one is likely to spend more time with any given subject. This further enables a subject to become more comfortable and thus resume more naturalistic behaviours. The below photos represent an envisioned scenario and how it was finally put together. Carpenter ants (Camponotus sp.) arch their gasters (abdomens) above their heads in a stereotyped response to threats.

Camponotus ant with horsefly (Tabanidae) prey. In this particular species the gaster is rarely lowered and remains arched above the head even when running, feeding or scavenging. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

On the same plant as the Camponotus model species are jumping spider mimics. These not only have the colouration and morphological features of their models, but also engage in behavioural mimicry. The latter of which is not limited to the forelegs substituting for antennae and held, waving above the head as in many other species of this genus. But also of the semi-permanently raised gaster as seen below. The spider when not within the immediate vicinity of the ants, however, will drop its abdomen to resume a more spider-like appearance. Thus to enhance the similarity between the model and mimic, I sought to capture the raised gaster behaviour.

Female ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne sp.). Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Now the previous two photos laid the groundwork for the following photo and shows the progression in my train of thought and the shaping of an idea for a very particular kind of photo. Having captured both the model and mimic separately, I now wanted to capture them within a single frame to highlight the similarity in the most conspicuous of ways. This of course meant dedicating a lot of time, choosing the most strategic of locations to maximize my chances and a lot of failed attempts. Initially I would have liked to have caught both spider and ant in perfect focus, however, capturing a single one of them in focus was already a challenge as both species tend to be very active. Therefore I had to adapt and settle for a different kind of shot. Below is the result. In the foreground is the ant-mimicking spider and in the background the model ant. I backed off on the magnification in order to increase my depth of field. This also had the benefit of allowing more space for the running subjects.

Model and mimic in one frame. Although the photo doesn’t approach the kind of detail I had envisioned, and there was a significant loss of quality as I had to crop heavily, the photo undeniably achieves one of my goals of showing the similarity between model and mimic. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Having captured the above photo, I then had the idea of photographing both male and female within a single frame. Now I’d done this before with other sexually dimorphic species to illustrate the divergent morphological traits between male and female. This is usually achieved via low magnification bird’s eye view-type shots which come across as a little lifeless and textbook-reference style. Therefore I sought to photograph them in profile rather than dorsally. Unlike the above photo both would need to be in clear focus. Thus I decided to exploit a behavioural trait to capture my envisioned photo. Jumping spiders are visual predators, as much can be deduced by their enlarged anterior median eyes (AMEs). Therefore when in the presence of other animals and insects they are usually quite active and evasive. However, when in isolation and after they have grown accustomed to the photographer’s presence they are generally much more subdued (Nb. this may take upwards of 1/2hr). Therefore I isolated male and female on a single leaf suspended above the ground and encouraged the male to remain on one side of the leaf and the female on the reverse such that they were out of eyesight of one another and thus unable to excite and elicit too much movement from each other. After a few minutes they calmed down and I was able to slowly maneuver them into position by twirling the leaf or breathing on them gently such that they were in the same plane of focus. This sequence of events not only illustrates the importance of having a particular vision in mind, but also how observation and a background knowledge of biology and natural history can aid in the preparation and execution of a photo.

Male and female ant-mimicking spiders (Myrmarachne sp.). Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

4) Shooting a moving target


Always aim ahead of the subject and have your focus ready, that way as soon as it comes into the frame you can get 4-5 shots off before it exits the frame. With a little luck your focus and framing will be on for at least one of those shots. This is important not only with fast moving subjects but also at high magnification where despite a small and an objectively slow moving subject, the subject’s apparent speed increases relative to the magnification. Bottom line is that even a 1mm worm will look like its moving quickly at 5x magnification. The same general principle to those who shoot birds in flight, anticipate! The above shot of the ant model and mimic running from opposite directions within a single frame is a good example.

5) Eliciting behaviour


This goes contrary to what most people say and do, but an aggravated insect is an interesting one. I never intentionally harm an insect, and I certainly don’t condone those who do. But I do poke and prod it. This elicits many different behaviours which one just wouldn’t see otherwise. A perfect example of this is in this leaf mimicking katydid (Pterochroza ocellata). When closed it looks like a simple mimic, one could very simply have left it at that, however by pushing it around a little into a new position, it suddenly opened up in a threatening display, revealing a behaviour I had hitherto not been familiar with, and in my opinion, a much more interesting photo.

This is the original picture. Nice, but nothing special. In fact, now after further review, the black background and rather boring pose make this photo very average.

I then poked it and it jumped to the ground, this was so that one could see it in its natural habitat amongst the leaves. Now its camouflage is really shown to much better effect though the branches in the foreground are a major detraction.

However by far the best shot in this series is Pterochroza ocellata showing a threat display in response to my proddings. This behaviour would never have been witnessed otherwise and it did not harm on the insect to the best of my knowledge.

A view from the front shows the eyes, and the camouflaged wings which have separated, a good intermediate picture

Other insects may not show as formidable a display as the katydid above, however, each will generally show some manner of defensive display. Ants will open their mandibles which generally looks a lot neater than when they are just walking around. Snakes will dart their tongues, etc…

Ant protecting an extra floral nectary from, well, me. Note eyes out of focus could have been made a better picture by focus stacking. Difficult with this moving subject, or by getting a shot in a similar situation and photoshopping the out of focus elements.


This is a tricky one. Not only is it obviously dependent on species, but it also involves some creativity on your part and improvisation to the circumstances.

A) The best shots of lizards and reptiles involve territoriality. Even better than being threatened, anoles, chameleons and many other species will show dewlaps, change colours and show interesting behaviours difficult or impossible to elicit otherwise. So, if you bring along a small pocket mirror (like those used for makeup) you can sometimes elicit these displays. It’s best to draw as little attention to yourself as possible, so I recommend setting up the mirror facing the subject and having it resting on a tripod. In this manner you can step back and photograph. In the beginning try to remain as low-key as possible. Bump up the ISO and shoot without flash, then gradually introduce the flash as the subject becomes more and more distracted with the presence of its rival.

B) Some insects show stereotyped behaviour, like the digger wasp: A very interesting factoid about these Sphex wasps is that their behaviour is entirely programmed. In an experiment by Daniel Dennett, when the wasp arrived at its burrow with a prey item it left the prey to inspect the nest. The experimenter then moved the prey away about a foot. The wasp went looking for it, located it and then brought it back to the nest. Only it repeated the pattern, leaving the prey outside and inspecting the nest. This routine could be done any number of times without the wasp modifying its behaviour in the slightest. Such behaviour was then used as an argument by philosophers to explain how a variety of human actions though seemingly born of free will could simply be complex, innate behaviours. Keeping this in mind if you miss a shot the first time around you can remove the prey, watch the wasp look around for it, bring it back to the burrow and try again.

C) There’s always the old standby of throwing the prey into the path of the predator. I’m sure we’ve all thrown grasshoppers or flies into the webs of spiders. Less common perhaps is refrigerating the predator, it slows down the metabolism but when it emerges from its induced hibernation it is generally quite hungry. Another programmed behaviour to deal with the onset of winter. Therefore it is more likely to feed on prey. I don’t condone this method due to its artificiality, the fact that you need to have both a fridge and predator/prey on hand and it doesn’t always work. But well, here it is.

D) Nocturnal insects and birds are attracted to white flowers unlike their diurnal counterparts. This means that if you have either white, fake plastic flowers (okay, not the most common of paraphernalia) or some kind of white plastic, you can daub this with some kind of sugary substrate and you can attract a variety of moths, earwigs, ants and other nighttime critters. This really works the same way as an insect trap though. Set it up and then return to it several hours later or else you’re in for a very boring time.

E) Changing the subject’s physical environment. Anoles, chameleons and other colour changing animals will change their skin colour to match their surroundings. This might be a tough sell for the fast moving anoles, but chameleons aren’t a problem. Some Monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sp.), are called waxy monkey frogs for a reason. They spread wax over their bodies to both protect themselves from UV light, but more importantly to conserve moisture. If you place one of these frogs in a sunnier environment, it will begin to spread wax on itself. . . .

7) Experimentation

and try new things! I had never done an HDR image before, but when I did, I was immediately impressed with the result. It is understated as far as a lot of HDR’s go, but I really like the effect. See my new experimental section below which shows some ‘different’ styles that I am trying.

Still deliberating whether or not to actually purchase the software since I don’t do enough HDR to merit spending the money, but I really enjoy the effect…the numerous shades of green are especially nice in this photo

8) Be original!

Create your own style! This creates some of the most satisfying, creative, wonderful photographs! I adore this photo, I have it as my screensaver, and I never get tired of looking at it. And the best part is…I took it! A lot of effort went into it both during the shoot and in post processing but I really like the effect. The key here is to think about a shot and how you want it to come out before you actually see the subject and starting shooting it. Before I go out on a shoot I think  about what I will see. If it’s raining and I know I’ll be walking by a pond, I know that my odds of seeing frogs will increase, so I consider how I would like to shoot these frogs before I’ve even left and then make adjustments fitting the scenario when/if I actually come across them in the field.

From the Peruvian Amazon, a reprocessed version of my earlier leafcutter. This one involved taking the camera raw version and exposing properly for the leaf, adjusting levels, sat., etc… and then importing into photoshop via a smart object. Then made a new smart object layer via copy, so that I could get another layer of the original image in Camera Raw, only this time adjust for the background. I adjusted the background in Camera Raw which updated the smart object copy layer in Photoshop. I then made a layer mask and painted the leaf and green background that I didn’t want changed. Merged copies and here we are. Advantage of this process is that it is less destructive than altering in a lossy manner with JPEG/other format since all the main RAW adjustments were made in Camera RAW. Then applied an unsharp mask to bring out the bristles and noise reduction for the red/orange background.

9) A numbers game

Two is usually better than one! Why? Because they interact with each other. Even if it is not directly, they create tension in one another that is visible in the photograph.

These predaceous katydids (Phlugis sp.) were walking up and around the leaf. When they stopped in this position, it made for a great showdown. They are almost comical, one with the mouth full of food and the other looking like it wants to take a bite when suddenly they see themselves being watched, stop midpose and stare.

10) A note on catchlights and specular highlights

There is a place for these as they can add texture and interest to a photo, but they can also be distracting and destroy a photo’s potential. This really needs to be looked at on a case by case basis. However, generally, if the catchlights are in the eyes and are well diffused then the texture and colours are usually preserved and I will leave them as they are. If the diffusion has failed and the highlights interrupt a pattern or wash out the colours, then I will clone and repair it out. I do this mostly in reptile and amphibian eyes, where the damage is much easier to repair in the single eye than in the many faceted ommatidia of insects. Below is an example of a repair job of a flash shot on a snail shell that has become way too distracting. I didn’t use any kind of diffusion on this shot. With post processing in photoshop, I have cloned and repaired most of the damage. I did this very slowly at a magnification of 700X. However, I found the efforts worthwhile because I really liked the pose of the snail.

Edited snail (Macrochylamys sp.). Here the detail has been restored to the snail making, in my opinion a better picture. Note, better diffusion from the get-go would have solved this problem.

This second shot shows the same snail as it was originally shot.

Snail (Macrochylamys sp.). Here the reflections off the shell and body are distracting and really detract from the overall quality of the image.


11) Knowing your equipment


Many people use ETTL flash without ever bothering to learn how to use the manual setting of the flash. This is a mistake. It always pays to know the ins and outs of your equipment. I used to use ETTL, but every so often I would here the flash charging and then it would let out a burst and the whole scene was whited out. This happened often enough that I started using the manual flash settings and have since been much more satisfied. For the mpe generally I use 1/8th flash power (f.p.) at 1-2x mag, 1/4 f.p. for 3-4x mag., and 1/2-1/1 f.p. for 4x-5x mag. Settings will vary depending on your ISO, aperture and shutterspeed, the above is for a ‘typical’ macro setting of ISO 100, f/11 and 1/200 sec. I find my photos are more adequately exposed now that I have control of this element as well. It also helps with you to understand the general principles of light and will get you further involved in all technical aspects.

12) Horizons


The horizon constitutes the surface that the insect is on, be it leaf or ground or tree. Try and tilt the angle to have the leading lines of the subject drawing you in.

The gentle slope of the buttress root which forms the horizon is a pleasing curve which draws the viewer in and complements the backlit harvestman. Photo taken in Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Copyright Paul Bertner 2014.

Alternatively you can incorporate curves and and rounded shapes which are more visually appealing than harsh straight lines.

Female ant-mimicking jumping spider (Myrmarachne assimilis). Photo taken in Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

13) Backwards and forwards


Another way in which my style differs from other people’s is that I like interesting backgrounds. A lot of macro is aimed to isolate the subject from the background and have a nice bokeh. This can make for some lovely photographs and especially portraits, true. However, busy backgrounds provide a lot to look at and I will generally look at a photo a lot longer when it has an interesting background than one that is simple, and straight forward. This is particularly difficult to do in night photography which the majority of my shots are, however, I try and shoot at smaller apertures to gain more detail from the surroundings.

The lichen on this fallen tree trunk has provided a very detailed and interesting mosaic pattern. Rather than go for the closeup of the ants and lose this wonderful backdrop, I elected to shoot with a 100mm macro from further away. This is one of my earlier shots and so composition and light aren’t what I would like them to be, but I love the background. Endau-Rompin national park, Borneo.

14) Focal points

Let’s add a disclaimer to the above point. There should be a focal point of interest to the photo. Too many disparate elements and the viewer gets lost. Let the eye naturally go to the focal point and then allow it to naturally radiate out to take in the small intricacies of the scene. So if there are additional, small insects in the background that aren’t visible upon first viewing. Or any in focus background/foreground points of interest, etc…


15) The notetaker

Make notes while taking your photos. If you have a 1Ds series canon, lucky you! It has a voice recorder function. If not use a separate tape recorder or the video function on your camera. This is especially useful when you go over the same trail or grounds over again. If you spot a particular insect that has made a nest or a spider web that you particularly like, make a note of it. If you see an insect and you try and get a specific pose but don’t manage to get it this time around make a note of it so that next time you can try again. If there’s a setting that you found particularly useful or innovative record it.


16) Safety/Reference shot

If you are worried more about the insect than the composition take a ‘safety shot’ first. At a distance that you find appropriate take a photo so that if you scare it upon approach you will have at least one half-decent shot. This might not be a photo that you are satisfied with, but you can use it for reference later on to see if it is the same species you might find later on. Approach a couple of steps and take another shot. Repeat until you get to the desired distance and can shoot the subject as you intended to from the beginning.



Always carry a LOT of spare batteries and LOTS of memory cards. I carry 24 AA’s, 3 LPE6 batteries, (4) 16GB, (2) 64GB and (1) 8GB CF cards. This allows me to shoot as much as I want and not be limited. If you are constantly worried about using up too much space or power you will miss out on opportunities. I can shoot however I want. If I want to try my hand at an HDR, panoramic focus stack, taking 40+ photos to be merged into one, then I don’t feel bad about it. John Hallmen typically does 70+ natural light exposures. Experimenting can be seen by some as useless or a waste, but it leads to some really awesome shots, but first you have to go through lots of duds and throwaways. Get over the first hurdle and don’t limit yourself. Going hand in hand with this is to make sure of the compatibility of your equipment. If you can have your flashes, camera, flashlight, etc…all on matching batteries this makes life a lot easier. It means you don’t have to carry around tons of different chargers and if one gets lost you are not totally screwed. I ALWAYS use rechargeable batteries and I don’t know why others don’t use them as much as they should! I carry a spare set of lithium disposables for emergencies only which I never use. But otherwise I use my rechargeables exclusively of which I have found Sanyo eneloops to be the best. Look around, I have a friend who has a nikon twin flash which uses CR123A batteries. He was using expensive disposables because he simply didn’t know that there were rechargeables for this battery type. So do your research!


18) Manual or Automatic focusing macro lens? A lot of people shoot manual and a lot of the ‘experts’ will tell you to shoot manual. I went to a camera store specifically looking for the canon automatic macro lens (Canon 100mm f/2.8 USM). At this time I had  a Zeiss which is exclusively manual on my canon. The sales person kept on telling me that I should shoot manual, what did I need an automatic for, my Zeiss was better than the canon, yadda, yadda, yadda… Although I shoot in manual mode 90% of the time, automatic is very useful if you have to manipulate a leaf or hold a stem. It is just not possible to do this, while changing the focus ring, while holding your flashlight, while adjusting your flash heads to the optimal position. Remove some of the burden and in this case use your automatic setting. Yes it can search and be tedious at times but having the function is much better than being without it. I missed lots of shots when I just had the so-called superior Zeiss.


19) Light


Lighting composition

Use slightly off but complementary light. So if the subject is one shade of yellow, try and get it on a background that is ideally either a different shade of yellow, red or pink. This creates a subtle picture where one form flows into another with no jarring contrasts. It is therefore more pleasant aesthetically.

The colours complement each other quite nicely, there are other colours in the image but the dominant colour in the subject is undoubtedly yellow (white is neutral) and the leaf is yellow.

Strong contrasts can be good as well, however I feel like they don’t give as nuanced and subtle a feel to the photo. Another example is here:

Here the browns/beiges complement each other

5) Where you can, try and show them in their natural environment. The katydid amongst the leaves is an example. I’ve seen some terrific photos shot with wide-angles that show mountains and landscapes to great effect (though admittedly I haven’t tried this myself). 6) Diffuse light is especially important for shiny, metallic or black subjects. So make sure you either have a large apparent light source close to the subject or else good diffusion. Macro photographers are constantly in a battle to find that ideal combination of diffusion and many different materials can be used. In the rainforest this poses a particularly annoying problem due to the constant humidity and dense foliage which obstructs any protruding diffusers. Paper towels, tissue paper quickly becomes soggy and unusable. Other organic materials grow fungus and molds over time. Then if you are moving from one camp to another then cardboard snoots or coke can diffusers get mashed in backpacks during travel. So the best solution I have found is either something professionally made like a Lumiquest softbox which won’t deteriorate and can be treated relatively harshly or else a simpler solution which I myself use, a simple doubled over sheet of vellum paper. This can be obtained at arts and crafts stores. It is organic and so will deteriorate over time, however it is flexible and resilient. Not to mention cheap. And it can be easily cut to fit over your flash heads.

Normally there would be a lot of hotspots on this beetle, however I managed to minimize that by having a triple layer of diffusion (vellum paper)



This is a huge topic and will differentiate great photos from mediocre ones even if you have gotten all the other elements right. I typically shoot at night and so have to rely on flash power alone, however recently I have started with natural light (NL) shots and NL shots supplemented with fill flash. When done right, NL shots usually have nice soft backgrounds without harsh contrasts, or specular highlights. These effects can be made more pronounced the larger the aperture (smaller f stop), in the below picture, a larger aperture was used to both increase the available light hitting the sensor as dusk approached and light dwindled and also to create a shallow depth of field which in some cases can create a 3D feel. NL shots can be more difficult for several reasons: 1) Requires a longer shutter speed; This necessitates not only a more stable platform from which to shoot, but also that the subject remain motionless 2) You need to choose your backgrounds carefully to complement the subject appropriately 3) You may need to diffuse the light if it is too harsh, so one must keep an eye towards what kind of light is hitting the subject: is it bright, shaded, diffused from cloud cover, etc… An all natural light shot is not always a feasible solution and so a compromise solution can be to use fill flash. This is where a flash is used to fill in the shadows and complement the NL. Below is an example. Here you can see the flash in the eye, however the flash power was set to 1/32, just enough to brighten up the subject, while the shutter speed was long enough to correctly expose for the background. Proper overall exposure takes practice and can be tricky especially under the canopy where light conditions are constantly changing due to the patchiness of light. However the results can be well worth the effort.

Treefrog shot with natural light and fill flash. Kanuku mountains, Guyana.

Orbweaver shot in NL in Winfield, B.C., Canada. The complementary beige colours of subject and background didn’t come through with flash which gave a black background and a much deeper brown to the image as a whole.

Crab spider with hoverfly taken at sunset, natural light.

If you wish to see a prime example of this kind of photography “THE” place to start in my opinion is with an excellent macrophotographer who produces absolutely amazing natural light shots: John Hallmen.

John Hallmen’s Fall beetle on Heather. Cryptocephalus sericeus, 6mm These beetles have the habit of releasing their grip and fall to the ground as you get closer. In other words you need to be extra careful when sneaking up on them. Stacked from 13 natural light exposures in Helicon Focus. Exposure time: 1/4s, Aperture: f7.1, ISO: 200




More to Come

Let’s get specific


Tips for flying insects 1) For most of the ‘game’ flying insects (These are dragonflies, damselflies, most dipterans) night time is the best time to shoot high magnification shots. While they are sleeping, approach them with the flashlight pointed away from the insect, if you point it directly at it, you will wake it and it will fly directly into the light (I mean, wouldn’t you?). So, approach stealthily and squeeze off a few shots. Try pumping up the iso (to within bounds of the quality of your camera) and reducing the flash power to get more leeway with the insect. The patience really varies on the species. Dragonflies, Owlflies I usually find very patient, whereas dipterans take off after a couple of flashes, so make them count. To get scenic shots, daytime NL shots is your best bet. You are more likely to get a better shot with longer lenses. These not only give you a longer workable distance, but also enable you to isolate your subject more effectively from the background, creating a softer bokeh. Especially useful for dragonflies that perch on branches and stems around ponds and marshes where not only may they be inaccessible by foot, but moving in the marsh will disturb the water and hence the plants on which the subject is resting on.

Hoverfly (Syrphidae) feeding on pollen. This shot was taken in the mid-afternoon when there was strong light, and so I used mostly natural light with a small amount of fill. This worked much better than if I had used full flash since the complementary background colours would have been reduced to black. Vancouver, B.C. Canada.

2) Photography during the rain is a good thing. Flying insects usually retire to a leaf and brace themselves to weather the storm, with an umbrella in hand, covering yourself but leaving the insect uncovered (unless you find the movement caused by the rain too distracting) approach and shoot. Water droplets also make for interesting composition. 3) Cold weather, obviously not a lot of that in the Amazon, but in more temperate climes, insects are required to pump hemolymph into their wings which like our blood slows in colder weather. Therefore they need to pump much harder and longer and will generally not even move. Exceptions are bumblebees with their fur, they are more resilient to temperature extremes.


Tips for Ants 1) Look for natural sugar sources. I use  a lot of extra-floral and regular nectaries. These are the natural honeypots and you can get some very nice shots, not just of the ants and their natural environment, but of behaviour and how they interact with their comrades. Extra-floral nectaries are nectar producing organs independent of those located in the flowers. Though they may be located on the stem, they are most common on the petiole, midrib and leaf margins. Brimming with energy rich glucose, fructose and sucrose, they also contain a variety of aromatic chemicals that aid in species specific attraction, especially ants. Extra-floral nectaries occur year ’round unlike floral nectaries and so are able to attract insects which are subsequently press ganged into service as bodyguards. A ready source of extra-floral nectaries also helps draw some insects away from the energy rich pollen which can also be eaten by some insects and which could prove quite detrimental to the reproductive strategies of the host plant. These nectaries are usually evenly spaced over the entire surface of a leaf such that an insect is forced to roam over its entire surface, effectively patrolling the leaf. Should the insect encounter a hemipteran or other kind of pest, it is quickly ushered off the premises or else taken and eaten. Ants in particular enjoy a symbiotic relationship with plants displaying extra-floral nectaries which has enabled both participants to flourish in each other’s company.

Here an ant is acting protectively towards an extra-floral nectary that it is guarding…pretty nice, eh? Better than ants milling around a spot of sugar water

Combine all your knowledge for each photo. Don’t just be satisfied with following one step, follow them all and add your own!

Three is company! So these ants were REALLY small. This is a 5X magnification with a significant crop. But they were delightful to work with. They nearly fit and fall into the nectaries they are feeding on, making for some amusing styled shots. The colour combined with the pose and behaviour reminded me of that honey loving bear winney the pooh. Despite their cuteness they have that ferocity when guarding their nectaries seen in ants of all sizes. And they love that sugar so much, they really have to be wrestled out of place by their peers before they give up their place at the honeypot! Iwokrama lodge, Guyana.

Natural sugar sources include honeydew derived from phloem-sucking hemipterans (aphids, scale, membracids, mealy bugs, etc…)

Here ants are farming and catering to a treehopper

Not only do ants protect their aphid ‘cows’ but when an aphid’s production has fallen, then the ants will actually pick them up in their mandibles and move them to another location from which they can garner more honeydew. Winfield, B.C., Canada.

Not only do ants protect their aphid ‘cows’ but when an aphid’s production has fallen, then the ants will actually pick them up in their mandibles and move them to another location from which they can garner more honeydew. Winfield, B.C., Canada.

Patience is key in getting these kinds of shots! Insects will not show regular behaviour if they feel at all threatened and so one must usually wait until they return to their normal activities before one can resume shooting. This shot took roughly 3hrs and 400 shots to get to my satisfaction. However it clearly shows the ant patting the aphid to extract the honeydew of which it has a mouthful. Kelowna, B.C., Canada.

2) Leafcutters have become somewhat of my specialty simply because I enjoy the challenge and I am so fascinated by their behaviour. Every time I come across them I can easily spend several hours photographing them. I have developed a few techniques to improve my keeper ratio though be forewarned, you will have many, many rejects. 1 in 40 shots acceptable is not uncommon. Leafcutters are constantly in motion and can be a real pain. If you try and isolate them on a twig or something, they often drop their leaves and look unnatural. The solution I’ve found is to follow them to their ‘logging grounds’. When they march vertically, due to the load, they are slower than when running horizontally. Also, try blowing on them… I find that they will often stop altogether and brace themselves against the tree trunk. Just as they finish carving their leaf there is a brief window where they are getting the balance just right before heading off, this is a prime opportunity to catch a few quick shots. Look for obstacles in the terrain and wait beside these since it will usually slow down the leafcutters, possibly creating somewhat of a traffic jam.

It took many tries, but using the techniques above, I was able to get a single shot where all three ants were in acceptable focus

Leafcutter ant (Atta sp.) carrying leaf. Picture appears dark with too much contrast due to web re-sizing, original has a much smoother colour palette. Peruvian Amazon.

One of my favourite leafcutter shots is “Leafcutters against a blue sky”. The leafcutter trail fortunately came down a tree trunk in a clearing. This was in the cloud forest where we got few sunny days, however circumstances aligned such that the ants were coming down their trail just as the clouds parted. I toyed with manual settings for the better part of an hour. Considerations included leafcutter speed. I could not lower the shutter below 1/160s or it would be blurry. I could open up my aperture but not too much otherwise there would not be enough in focus. The flash had to be quick enough to stop movement but also not bleach out the scene. So with MT-24 EX I wrapped one flash head around the tree and shot from behind the subject at about 1/8th power. Second flash head shot from in front at 1/32 power. This allowed the leaf to be properly exposed, otherwise I would have gotten an unevenly lit foreground. Mindo, Ecuador.

3) Army ants are not only fast, but aggressive. If you stay in one spot too long they will send out scouts and before you know it they are swarming all over your pants. To combat this, you can isolate an army ant(s) on a stick or other material. As they run up and down, it will afford you many opportunities to get the shot you want (Applies to high mag. and more or less single ant shots). [I am working on improving my army ant shots since I feel they could be much better, and they are a very fascinating subject so stay tuned to this section. Shots will include high mag. soldier/worker, Bivouac, panning nomad lines, myrmecophiles, hunting ant shots]

Army ant moving a larva, normally near impossible to photograph, isolated on a stick I was able to get it away from its biting fellows and shoot him at my own leisure as he ran back and forth, oftentimes stopping to readjust its grip

If ants are in motion, try using this to create a dynamic photo. I have recently been experimenting with panning and leafcutters. So far the results look promising, though I haven’t got any that I would call ‘stunners’. For more experimental shots, see the ‘experimental’ section below.

Leafcutters in motion…this task is damn near impossible but I keep trying and I think I’m getting closer to a result that I like. One has to follow at the same speed as the leafcutter motion, adjusting for angle and depth. Basically making the subjects remain motionless while the background is blurred. Yeah photoshop is okay, but it doesn’t give you the sheer thrill of a great photo

4) The stakeout. This goes for ants, wasps and pretty much any communal insect. Choose a location where they occur in the greatest density. You increase your odds exponentially of finding interesting behaviour. For ants you will find more communication between fellow nestmates, greater instances of parasitization by wasps, mites and other parasitoids, nest defence strategies and a variety of other behaviours. Food sources are also an excellent area (this may include compost bins, and garbage heaps in more urban environments). More ants can be seen HERE Tips for wasps and bees

Seen here is a hornet with an ant as prey, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.

Wasps in particular can have quite menacing faces, this in conjunction with their warning colours makes them particularly attractive subjects for dramatic lighting and closeups. Wasps being predatory insects can often be found with prey. More often than not it is a matter of luck finding them with prey, but if you remain within close proximity to the nest, you can increase your odds. Also look for places that may be plentiful for ‘source’ insects; an ant colony might be one example, or a compost bin. More Bees and wasps can be seen HERE I don’t take too many pictures of bees in general since they are very flighty, they are strictly diurnal and they are a very, very popular subject and so I’m afraid I won’t be able to contribute anything that’s really new. However, if you want to see some of the best bee photos that I have seen, I would direct you to John Kimbler’s (Dalantech) website.

Shot taken by John Kimbler.

Tips for Neuroptera The most common Neuroptera that you will find are lacewings, ant-lions, owlflies and mantidflies and their abundance is roughly found in this same descending order. Lacewings (Chrysopidae) Lacewings are named for the wonderfully intricate venation of their wings and though this trait is shared with the other members of this family as well as with the Odonata (Dragonflies and damselflies) they are still probably the most striking (especially in their green form). The faint rainbow iridescence that glances of the translucent panels of the wings, the elegant green veins and the trim of faintly raised hairs (which when viewed closer are actually tiny hooks) combine to create an elegant insect truly worthy of the name ‘lacewing’.

An example of a poorly diffused shot with uneven light all too typical of many amateur shots. This is one of my earlier shots which even with post production cleanup still suffers a number of glaring imperfections. Not least among them are poor white balance, uneven lighting, poor shadow detail and low depth of field.

Like the antlions and owlflies, lacewings are clumsy fliers and can be readily caught with a net, though lacking that they often only travel a short distance before landing on another leaf for a break. Therefore if you happen to startle one into flight then you stand a good chance of getting another opportunity. In my experience, where one finds one lacewing there are likely to be others. They enjoy the undersides of leaves and are pretty ubiquitous, being found in cleared fields, dense undergrowth and riparian areas. Despite their beauty, they are voracious predators of many small arthropods. Of particular note to the agricultural industry is their rapacious appetite for aphids, mites and other damaging pest species engendering their use as a biological control agent of late. However, one is unlikely to encounter such behaviour due to their crepuscular (dusk)/nocturnal behaviour unless it is specifically sought out. Another solution, one which I don’t really espouse but which is effective nonetheless is to refrigerate a lacewing for a couple of days, slow down its metabolism and then when you release it you put it on a leaf with potential prey.

Lacewings prefer to feed on small, juicy prey like aphids and having found an undefended colony they often seize the nearest aphid in their hollow jaws and inject a mixture of paralytic venom and peptidases (hydrolytic enzymes which cleave proteins) liquefying the internal organs sufficiently to facilitate digestion. More found HERE. Green lacewing feeding on an elderberry aphid (Aphis sambuci). Winfield, B.C. Canada.

Green lacewing feeding on an elderberry aphid (Aphis sambuci). Winfield, B.C. Canada.

As seen from this sequence a lacewing will eat the entire aphid, not even leaving behind the husk. A few legs, like crumbs, the only thing to fall from its mouth. Green lacewing feeding on an elderberry aphid (Aphis sambuci). Winfield, B.C. Canada.

Another fascinating behaviour which should further encourage nighttime exploration is the lacewing’s complex manner of egg deposition. Eggs are mounted on the end of silky stalks to protect them both from marauding predators such as ants, and from each other, since the voracious newly hatched lacewings would otherwise cannibalize their siblings. The stalks are further covered in oily droplets composed of aldehydes and fatty acids which act as an irritant to other insects, thereby preventing their predation- more can be read HERE.

Lacewing eggs with defensive droplets on silken strands. Found during a night hike in iwokrama rainforest reserve, Guyana.


Owfly taken at Kaieteur falls, Guyana.

The horizontal division in the eye of this owlfly makes for very interesting composition and adds interest just because it is so unusual. High magnification is preferable. Kaieteur falls, Guyana.


Ant-lion larva

More Neuroptera can be seen HERE Tips for beetles, cockroaches and carapaced insects Cockroaches (Blattodea) I find beetles and cockroaches can be quite difficult subjects to capture well. They are usually found scuttling on the ground and so 99% of shots are taken from above. The head and eyes are usually a good focal point for an image (note there are exceptions), shots taken from above don’t display these features to their most beneficial.

Here’s an example of a poor, yet typical cockroach shot. I took this several years ago in Borneo. It is too flat, no real points of interest, one can’t see the head and the photo is too dark. Utterly forgettable.

So, get low down and shoot upwards.

This cockroach was found on the forest floor. It blends in extremely well with the dead and dying leaves. However to shoot it from above would leave a rather flat composition. So I lay down on the leaves and waited until it adopted a position where it mounted a lookout leaf higher than the rest. I tilted my camera up and got this shot. To my eye, this shot is much better! Kurupukari crossing, Guyana.

Cockroaches have interesting behaviours too don’t forget! One can very easily dismiss scuttling and unpleasant creatures and avoid looking for any kind of behaviour, however, some are very interesting or even beautiful!

Here a cockroach is splaying its wings in an attempt to lure a mate. Manu national park, Peru.

Cockroaches and most insects for that matter undergo moults in which they shed their exoskeleton in order to grow and adopt a new chitinous shell. This can be a great opportunity to catch some interesting and somewhat otherworldly photos.

The old exoskeleton has been split and emerging is the cockroach, now larger. Colours are usually more vibrant after a moult as well. Insects will require some time for the chitin to harden and so usually remain still for long periods during this dangerous and sensitive period in their lifecycles.

Beetles (Coleoptera) Put the insect on a leaf, or twig and raise it up to get a shot from below. Use glass and shoot an underside portrait. Use mirrors. There are any number of things one can do to generate a more interesting shot.

Rather than shooting this Rhinoceros beetle amongst the grasses, I decided to get it to cling to a stick and raise it against the sky for a brighter more unusual backdrop. Kurupukari crossing, Guyana.

One can either choose to zoom in on the beetle’s details or else relax the frame and show it in its environment. There are merits to both methods. However it can be difficult to choose when to employ each. Of course it depends on the intent of the photographer, but one must also look at the environment and at the subject. Take the example of the hairy weevil below. In order to show its minute size, I pulled the frame back and employed lots of negative space. In so doing one’s attention is drawn to the subject while also maintaining  a larger awareness which would not otherwise be possible if the beetle took up every inch of the frame. When I took the shot I was also reminded of camels walking along the edge of dunes in the desert. I tried to recreate that by ensuring that the edge of the leaf was visible and moved from out of focus behind the subject to in focus to out of focus again ahead of the subject. Someone else once told me that it reminded them of an small elephant. If I can evoke a sense of the world’s largest terrestrial animal with a photo of a pinhead sized weevil then I feel like I successfully achieved my aim.

Hairy weevil taken in Vohimana reserve, Madagascar.

“Walking on the sun”. Weevil in Andasibe national park, Madagascar.

Hairy weevil at night in Vohimana reserve, Madagascar.

Mating tortoise beetles after heavy rain. Iwokrama reserve, Guyana.

Tiger beetle.

Tips for Arachnids, and Chilopods (Centipedes) Remember, it’s all about composition!!!

The top flowers are clipped to my disgruntlement, but other than that I’m happy with the photo. Even the black background contrasts nicely with the white of the flowers. Small spider camouflaged amongst the hoya flowers. Borneo.

Most spiders are harmless, and though they may appear quite vicious, the same rule applies to them as to the snakes below. Even the more poisonous spiders would rather leave you alone than waste their precious venom on you. Like most insects, the focal point is the face and eyes, though this can be complicated by the mouthparts and fangs which one would ideally like to get into focus as well. Therefore a smaller aperture might be of use when photographing frontal portraits at high magnifications. The problem I often face with spiders, day or night is not disturbing them. People are generally very careful when it comes to approaching flying insects because it makes the difference between getting a shot of the insect and getting a shot of the leaf it was sitting on. Yet they do not import that same care when photographing other more terrestrial insects. In my opinion this is a mistake. All insects and animals should be approached slowly and carefully. Even if you still manage to get a photo of the insect, after it has been alerted to your presence it will no longer remain in a natural pose but will adopt either a threatening posture or a cryptic one in which it tries to hide as best it can. The latter also provides good photographic opportunities as mentioned earlier. But your priority should be natural poses/behaviour, which after you have documented you can on to disturb the creature and get it into a better pose. Unlike a lot of other animals, arachnids can often be found feeding or engaging in other behavioural displays which can be caught to very good effect.

Mating running crab spiders. Here the male is inserting his sperm packet via his palps into an egg casing that the female has made. An interesting tangle of legs make this scene interesting and the colours are quite complementary. Manu national park, Peru.

So keep your eyes out for these. But watch out when they are feeding, because if you disturb them with your photography, typically when you hold the leaf or branch they are on to stabilize the camera, they will often drop their prey and assume an unnatural, threatened position. So approach with care.

Kleptoparasitic spider (Argyrodes) inhabiting the web of a larger spider. The kleptoparasite mostly stays out of the way of the larger spider on whose web it lives, but it will steal food, never bothering to build its own web. They are too small to be of any real concern to the larger spider and so they generally go unmolested. There can be dozens of these little spiders on a single web. This photo shows to good effect the use of foreground and background subjects. The former is the main subject and is in focus, whilst the latter is out of focus but still contributes to the story in an important way. Despite the fact that this is technically a portrait shot, it is also demonstrates kleptoparasitic behaviour. Manu national park, Peru.


Female harvestman guarding her eggs. However, she has also been parasitized by some form of wasp. The empty pupal chambers on her back a testament to her hardiness. Such photos tell a detailed story of natural history and are essential for generating interest and fascinating the viewer beyond simple aesthetics. Taken in Mindo cloud forest, Ecuador.

I find harvestmen quite difficult to shoot well. They are gangly if one wants to incorporate their legs and they have small beady eyes which can be difficult to get into focus. Their legs move across their eyes giving out of focus areas, the list goes on. So generally pictures including the entire spider aren’t ideal. So focus on the body. Many have dorsal patterns that make them particularly amenable to an overhead view.

This cosmetid harvestman was an ideal candidate for an overhead shot based on its intricate markings and spinular anatomy. Mahdia, Guyana.

Ecuadorian harvestman are some of the most diverse and impressive. Like the Craneid harvestman from Jatun Sacha, Tena, Ecuadorian Amazon.

The also respond particularly well to UV light. Proteins embedded in their exoskeleton fluoresce in response to wavelengths in the 300-400 nm range exhibiting colours ranging from blue-green, yellow to reds. There are still relatively few UV-harvestman shots out there, especially compared to the plethora of UV-scorpion photos, so such photos still appear unique.

Cosmetid harvestman under UV light. Taken in Bellavista cloud forest, Ecuador.

Orbweavers and web building spiders Orbweaving spiders are an incredibly diverse set, though features common to the group are the creation of large webs (relative to their size) used as the primary means by which to capture prey. However the resident spider doesn’t always remain in the central hub, but may reside on the periphery. The spider maintains its connection to the web by a  communication strand which when triggered will cause her to come racing out to capture her prey. In general orbweavers have a rather dull colouration so as to avoid being conspicuous to wasps and avian predators (though exceptions abound). A suspended spider affords an excellent view of both the ventral and dorsal surfaces and depending on the height, one can achieve interesting head on perspectives.

Large orbweaver ventral portrait. Here the colours on the ventral side were much more interesting than the dorsum. I was also able to get pretty close without disturbing it so the legs remained splayed rather than tucked in which would ruin the effect. The main goal here was to display the colours to good effect. Manu national park, Peru.

Taken at night in Iwokrama reserve, Guyana.

Almost as soon as prey lands in an orbweaver’s web, it will be descended upon by the spider. She will often bite and release and wait. After the paralytic in the venom has had a chance to take effect and the risk of damage to the spider has been minimized, she will proceed to wrap up her prey either to feed or to save for later. It is while she is wrapping her prey that an excellent photographic opportunity presents itself. Silken strands are pulled from the spinnerets by a rear leg and are wrapped around the prey even as the prey is being rotated and managed by the other legs. This happens extremely quickly, so it is best to prepare beforehand. Your settings should be set to hi-speed continuous shooting, low ISO, fast shutter speed over 1/200 sec should be used. Depending on the magnification a small aperture <f/11 should be used to maintain focus of the silk, the spinnerets, the prey that is being wrapped and as much of the spider as possible. Fast shutter speeds and small f-stops thus require the use of flash unless one desires to increase both the ISO and the graininess of the image. Perhaps most important is getting a good vantage point for the action. Make sure that the web is not too high, and that it is not surrounded by tons of plants or other objects which when disturbed will cause the spider to abandon its prey and go running for cover. Also be certain that you approach from the proper side for the best possible view rather than taking pictures from behind where the spinnerets and the action is out of focus and covered by the other limbs. Accustom the spider to your presence before tossing in the prey so that it will wrap the prey in the same place it was caught. Otherwise she will view you as a threat and will simply carry the prey to the hub or elsewhere that is more sheltered and which offers limited opportunities for viewing and photography. For a more dramatic photograph, choose prey which is large but slow which has a large surface area, but is light and will not fall through the web, nor should it be capable of fighting back. Ideal prey are moths and butterflies, though flies, especially craneflies whose long gangly bodies readily become entangled are also excellent choices. Remember that webs were designed to entrap flying prey and so choosing terrestrial prey usually doesn’t result in satisfactory results. However, it takes some luck and many many shots to get one that is satisfactory.

Get there when the action happens. Usually simply being around a spider web will encourage prey like horseflies, mosquitoes or insects attracted to your flashlight to fall prey to a spider web. Therefore be patient, and wait until an insect falls into the web and then be ready to fire away like crazy because the action will be brief but intense. Jatun Sacha, Ecuadorian Amazon.

Some spiders build extraordinary webs and so the spiders themselves really need to be showcased in their microcosm. Spiders can form up to 7 different kinds of silk from their spinnerets, modifying the basic silk polymer by different extrusion mechanisms. Some spiders, especially those of the Cyclosa and Argiope genera can create an opaque white silk, a thread quite distinct from that used to form the rest of the web and which is called the stabilimentum. Though the purpose of the stabilimentum isn’t fully known, theories range from  its use to alert birds from flying into and destroying the webs to deflecting UV-light and cooling the spider.

This picture would have been very easy to make flat and uninteresting despite the amazingly ornate web. Why? Because webs are almost always in a single plane like a sheet of paper. And so unless you tilt that plane then it constantly gives only a single perspective. Here the plane is tilted slightly, very subtly and I tried to find the spider itself on an angle to add further interest. Cyclosa spiders in general make for very good subjects because they have a variety of interesting adaptations in web design. Cyclosa insulana found during a night hike in Maliau basin, Agathis camp, Borneo.

The shots in this segment were all taken with flash because they were either taken at night or during a period of intense action exemplified by predation. However, a more harmonious scene is usually achieved with more subdued colour palette usually created by using natural light. Consider using this method during the day to capture web building spiders in their natural habitat. Get low and shoot upwards or level so that the maximum amount of light is able to enter the lens. Better yet use a tripod so that you are not limited by the shutter speed. While out of focus elements in the foreground can readily become distracting, if they are minimal and tastefully done, they can also add to the dreamy feel and work well together with subdued colours.

Camouflaged orbweaver amongst leaves. Taken during the day with natural light in Lake country, Canada.

Jumpers Jumping spiders have lots of personality and are very photogenic so this isn’t a group that is too hard to photograph. They cock their heads to the side as though deliberating their next move, they will often put their front legs out in front of them just before jumping, they have a variety of great poses. When photographing jumpers I prefer the pose immediately before they jump or when they tilt their heads back and look up at the camera with their two large median eyes.

One of my earlier photographic attempts. Notice that the white balance is heavily skewed towards a warm colour temperature. The scene is harshly and unevenly lit and altogether underexposed. Female Lyssomanes looking up into the camera. Notice the large amount of foreground space that I allowed in this photo which gives her the appearance of being ready to jump right into the camera. Iwokrama, Guyana.

In comparison to the first photo, this one is properly exposed, there are no specular highlights, the pose is more dynamic and interesting and the shadow and highlight details are properly controlled. Jumping spider (Padilla lancearia) endemic to Madagascar. Found in Marojejy national park, Madagascar.

Sometimes jumpers won’t readily oblige in their poses and seemingly look everywhere but where you want them to. They naturally jump higher rather than lower. So you can get them to look up by putting your finger or a stick slightly above them with one hand while you wait for the pose and shoot with the other. Or you may have to curl or tilt the branch/leaf that they are sitting on. The eyes of jumpers take up most of their face and a shot missing this key element might be found lacking unless some other important focal point is found. Front on portraits are very common for a reason, they show these eyes to their best advantage. Jumpers will often attack prey that looks huge in comparison to their diminutive size, these can make for very interesting shots as well.

Here is an example of both points above, where both the eyes and a large prey have been caught. Mahdia, Guyana.

Found during a night hike in Marojejy national park, Madagascar.

“Blink and you’ll miss it”. A key ingredient to the success of jumping spiders is their visual acuity, the best among invertebrates. Though they have 8 eyes like most other spiders, the configuration and morphology has evolved to meet their nomadic, predatory lifestyle. To catch prey, predators need to overcome a variety of challenges. Some of these include the hard carapace of coleoptera, the rapid reflexes and aerial flight of dipterans, chemical defenses, stings, poisons or large size discrepancies. These must be overcome to subdue the prey. Jumping spiders largely avoid these innate defenses in their prey by catching them by surprise. While some use camouflage, the majority are able to remain hidden from view of their quarry, simply by maintaining their distance. They first find prey by means of their posterior lateral eyes (PLE), which only provide a blurry image. At this time they use their large anterior median eyes (AME) to focus relatively far distances thereby increasing the distance between themselves and their prey. The AME’s when seen from the front look like long funnels compared to the other eyes. This extended distance from the front of the eye to the back serves essentially the same purpose as extension tubes in macrophotography, it magnifies the image on the sensor. However despite the increased resolution this affords, the field of view is quite narrow, between 3-5 degrees. This is why the other eyes are necessary. Despite their smaller size and consequently lower resolution capabilities, they offer a larger field of view so that the jumper may be aware of its 360 degree surroundings. Once it has narrowed the gap to its intended target, it uses its anterior lateral eyes (ALE) to judge the distance before jumping. This is the so called ‘modular’ theory that distinguishes a separation of tasks between the different eyes. Other research has shown that the functional lines between the eyes are less rigid than previously thought. With ‘secondary eyes’ though less proficient than the AME’s, are still able to distinguish, judge distance and enable the successful capture of prey. Jumping spiders lack the ability to physically move their eyes in their carapace, however they still manage to survey a scene without moving their entire bodies. This is achieved by moving their retinas. When a jumping spider is looking ahead, the eyes appear black because you are essentially looking down the tube of the retina. When it is looking elsewhere, the retina appears as a dark vertical band within the eye, as seen here. Another point of interest is that 4 types of receptors have been found in the eyes of jumping spiders possibly resulting tetrachromatic vision. Studies have already shown courtship displays affected by visual stimuli within the ultraviolet wavelength, potentially necessary for inter-species markers. UV reflectance has already been demonstrated as important for apian predation in crab spiders, making it likely that there is a network of interactions occurring within the UV spectrum. Lyssomanes sp. found during a hike in Kaieteur national park, Guyana.

Hunting spiders Hunting spiders are a polyphyletic group comprising the huntsman (Sparassidae), ctenids (Ctenidae), wolf spiders (Lycosidae), and tarantulas (mygalomorphae). This unofficial grouping is characterized by a lack of a web used in prey capture and a semi- or fully nomadic lifestyle. Most spiders’ eyes aren’t able to resolve detail particularly well. This is especially true amongst the Araneidae or web builders. However, the simple eyes (ocelli) are more than adequate to detect changes in the direction, quality, intensity and polarity of light. For this reason it is important to keep low and avoid casting a shadow (most birds and other predators attack from above) as this will engender an evasive response. Moreover, the hunting spiders generally have better vision than their web-based counterparts because their lifestyle demands it. The wolf spiders in particular have two large posterior median eyes (PME) able to resolve details from several centimeters away. Nevertheless vision still appears as a secondary sense in this group. The tactile hairs, which appear as spines on the legs, and the even finer trichobothria probably play a more important role in locating and responding to prey. These hairs respond to certain vibrational frequencies (eg. the buzzing of a fly) as well as being mechano-sensitive  (ie. respond to pressure waves). One should take note of the latter because too rapid an approach and one could create an air current which could frighten the spider. Always approach slowly, from below and downwind. Once alerted to your presence the spider may flee  or else attempt to hide by firmly appressing themselves to the substrate, ruining the majesty of their fearsome appearance.

Green lichen huntsman spider (Heteropoda boiei) found during a night hike in Lambir Hills national park, Borneo.

Huntsman spider (Sparassidae). Usually these lie flat when confronted with a camera but this one was feeling bold and approached the lens. So I got a few shots off of this confrontation and therefore got a pretty good pose. Bako national park, Borneo.

The poisonous South American wandering spiders (genus Phoneutria), within the Ctenidae family, are an exception to the camera shy rule. These spiders behave quite aggressively, and will rear up to show their fangs and bright, aposematic leg markings when disturbed. They bite very readily and usually inject a substantial amount of venom Though they are said to be able to jump I have never witnessed this.

Phoneutria fera. in a threat display. These spiders are very aggressive and are the most poisonous spiders of the Americas. They are noted not just for the toxicity of their venom, but also the amount which is more than any other spider. Photo taken in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

Most huntsman spiders are blandly coloured, though some are quite ornately camouflaged and have physiological features which aid in their camouflage such as hairs which extend around the body to help break up their outline. From Danum Valley, Sabah, Borneo (2009).

Mossy huntsman spider (Sparassidae) from Danum Valley, Borneo (2009).

Hairy huntsman (Thelcticopsis sp.) from Danum Valley, Borneo (2009).

Argyrodes and reflective spiders I haven’t taken a lot of photos of these kinds of spiders and those that I have have turned out not quite as well as I’d hoped. I would however recommend very strong diffusion to balance out the metallic sheen many of these spiders or else use cross polarization.

The silver spots are created by depositing guanine crystals (byproducts of digestion) into guanocyte cells just under the exoskeleton. The crystals are shaped into small plates and appear white by diffracting light rather than by selective absorption of wavelengths (as in real pigments). These reflective properties are thought to be important in temperature regulation. Argyrodes sp. taken in Jatun Sacha reserve, Ecuador (2010).

I will post more images when I have experimented further. Tarantulas and other mygalomorphs

Orange legged mygalomorph (Ephebopus cyanognathus). Thanks to Flickr’s Techuser for the ID.

Get over your fear of these friendly giants, they make great subjects!!! Most are slow and ponderous in their movements and can be readily handled. I have never had one bite me and from other people’s accounts the bite is no more painful than a wasp sting (and not poisonous in any case). Perhaps of greater concern are the tiny hairs released by the rubbing of hind legs against abdomen when feeling threatened. These hairs behave like little hooks, readily embedding themselves in the skin where they can remain for weeks causing itchiness and irritation. Again I have never had this happen to me and it is usually only an issue if the spider feels threatened or is being squeezed or manipulated in some uncomfortable way. Fortunately these spiders are very patient and can be photographed at length. Try and shoot them as they are climbing over obstacles. One of their chief distinguishing features is their hairiness, so try and sharpen their hairs to really accentuate that fuzziness (this can also be achieved by focus stacking).

Pink-toed tarantula (Avicularia sp.). The hairs are especially prominent in this species because they differ in colour from the rest of the body. Found during a night hike in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

If you can get a good shot of their jaws and fangs, go for it. Lucky you! It is perhaps just our societies associations of tarantulas with Halloween and death, but they often look quite ominous and so consider taking advantage of this by using dramatic lighting with lots of shadow. Another good pose is the frontal portrait showing the tarantula coming out of its burrow. However one must have good timing as they usually come out at night, and stay in their burrows during the day, another reason to go on night hikes.

Orange legged mygalomorph (Ephebopus cyanognathus) emerging from its den. Kaieteur falls, Guyana.

3 shot handheld stack, Found during a night hike in Bellavista cloud rainforest, Ecuador.

Crab spiders (Thomisidae)

Crab spider with prey. Here the camouflage is shown to good effect and the typical ‘embracing’ pose is shown to good effect. Tukeit, Guyana.

One of the nice things about crab spiders is their penchant for staking out flowers in the hopes of ensnaring nectar seeking insects. However they often have colours that blend in with the flowers making them difficult to differentiate. Try boosting contrast and adding additional sharpening to the edges of the spider to bring out details. They also have an open stance whereby they splay their legs waiting for prey. These can make for excellent poses.

This crab spider is hiding amongst the hairs of a beautifully quilled leaf. This plant also has nectar stores and is a good place to lay in wait. Kaieteur falls, Guyana.

Crab spiders are some of the best subjects for using stacking software like Zerene systems, Helicon focus or Photoshop because they often remain motionless both before and after prey capture. If you intend to try stacking the best and most consistent results are achieved with a tripod. However, serviceable results, especially if there are fewer than 10 frames in the stack can be had so long as one is able to rest the camera on a solid, immoveable surface. Then you can slowly edge the camera forward while shooting.

Crab spider with mosquito prey in a zucchini  flower. Winfield, B.C., Canada.

40 shot stack in Zerenestacker of a crab spider with mosquito prey in a zucchini flower. Winfield, B.C., Canada.

This photo best illustrates how a macroscape can still be important and can really create the image. The textures and depth were important elements in the composition. When I viewed a single exposure that focused simply on the crab spider I found that there was insufficient detail. Therefore I stacked the images to bring both the flower and mosquito into focus.

10 shot stack in Zerene stacker. Crab spider with green long-legged fly (Dolichopodonidae) prey. Winfield, B.C., Canada.

This picture illustrates how photogenic crab spiders can be, especially when they can be caught with prey and while hiding out within the axils of leaves or under the pistils as shown here. The detail in this photo would not have been possible without stacking. At least 4 photos were necessary just for the fly and a loss of focus in the fly would have  proven detrimental in my opinion. Fortunately crab spiders are masters of camouflage, and so the background that they are sitting on is usually of a complementary colour and they also usually sit stock still, lending themselves well to stacking.

8 shot stack of a white crab spider with Dolichodopid fly on a strawberry flower in the Okanagan, Canada.

More Spiders can be seen HERE Scorpions I am still working on this one. Frankly there isn’t a single scorpion shot that I have ever done that I am happy with and would be proud to display. They are very hard to give personality to. Short of going out with a blacklight and showing their UV fluorescence which is interesting just for the pure novelty of it, I seem incapable of getting good shots. The best I have is of one feeding on a spider. But even this one I’m not entirely pleased with.

Don’t particularly like the colour reproduction in the green tones here. I like it for the behaviour, but I feel like it could have been displayed to much better effect based on a different angle but it was scuttling away and I just snapped a few shots, all from a similar angle. Manu national park, Peru.

After some time I have found another feeding scorpion which in my opinion I have caught to much better effect. Don’t expect to see this kind of behaviour often in the wild. In about 3 months walking days and nights this is the only one I came across.

Scorpion feeding on a cockroach. Kanuku mountains, Guyana.

Scorpion feeding on a cockroach (Full view). Kanuku mountains, Guyana.

I think that one needs to catch the rare pose, and the rare behaviour to really make these shots come alive. Mothers with offspring would be one such photo that would be quite good. I suspect that one would have to get creative with the composition and find one in an unusual position or else on a flower or a macroscape that is different from the tired, old tree stumps you usually find them on. Keep an eye on this category to see if I come up with anything though… Finally arrived at this after long days and nights of nothing in this category!

Scorpions in courtship (magnified). This is very evocatively called the promenade a deux by entomologists. Evoking the imagery of a dance. Taken during a night hike in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

Scorpions in courtship (full view). This is very evocatively called the promenade a deux by entomologists. Evoking the imagery of a dance. Taken during a night hike in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

After some thought I know of the pose I want to catch next, now it is just the matter of accomplishing the task. I’d like to use a relatively slow shutter speed and catch a front on view of the spider as it attempts to sting. Hopefully catching a slight blur of motion in the process. Easier said then done though. I’ll keep you apprised of my progress. More Scorpions can be seen HERE Whip spiders (Amblypygids) Out of the tropics and into temperate zones not a lot of people have heard of these arachnids. And so for some, any shot of one of these is a good one. But having come across a number of them I beg to differ. They often lie flat against tree trunks or in the hollows of dead trees. They are cricket/grasshopper specialists. They’re exceedingly long and elegant front legs are used as feelers with which they scan their surroundings. These are very difficult to incorporate into a well composed photo, since they are inevitably held at angles which wind up being cut off while cropping or trying to get more detail out of the body. These are incredibly fast insects, akin to scutigera. But, they usually don’t run far, usually just around to the other side of the tree bole. So if you lose sight of it while hunting don’t despair and continue looking around for it because it usually hasn’t travelled far. These subjects make excellent front on portrait shots. Shoot their jaws and faces, do a focus stack or use a small aperture.

Frontal portrait showing to good effect the amazing claws used to grasp prey. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Display those characteristics that really make this a frightening predator and use them to good effect in the photo. Here it is the colours, the contrasting blacks and reds along with the long spines and eyes. The posture is such that it anthropomorphizes malignant intent.

closeup portrait of Amblypygid. Iwokrama rainforest reserve, Guyana (2010).

Most whip spiders are plain black or dull grey colours. However occasionally you can come across some real gems. Especially 1) right after they moult and 2) In their earlier juvenile stages. Here the ‘tiger’ patterns are present in the juvenile only and fade to a glossy black. Iwokrama forest reserve, Guyana (2010).

The most colourful whip spider that I’ve ever seen! Juvenile Amblypygid found in Iwokrama rainforest reserve, Guyana (2010).

Other angles I have been less successful with simply because they always hold extremely tightly to the bark and hence composing different angles is quite difficult if not impossible. One is very limited. I am still working to either transfer one to a leaf or take a shot while it is on the ground. Neither of which is its natural habitat. I have tried in the past, but they don’t like this and make all haste to get back to where they are most comfortable. Here is the one that I shot in the past.

Amblypygid on the ground in threat display. I had to encourage it to drop from the tree and I’m not satisfied with this picture, but it shows potential. A crop would probably be better. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

You can see that it adopts a different threatening posture from what it usually displays. But it was quick to retreat, so I will update this when I get a shot that I like better. Finally, it’s not especially common, but if you can find one with prey, these make for great shots. I’ve only seen it a few times but I am quite happy with this shot. You need to choose your angles carefully both to maximize depth of field for both predator and prey but also so that there is no obstruction of key features from one insect to another.

Amblypygid with cockroach prey. Iwokrama rainforest reserve, Guyana (2010).

More Amblypygids seen HERE Centipedes UPDATED 27/11/2013 I have found after many failed centipede shots that they tend to do best when isolated from the background and shot on black or at least with as much removal of a distracting background as possible. Also lots of diffusion is necessary otherwise the specular highlights are usually bad enough to ruin the photo. Closeups of the head rather than full body also tend to be more interesting.

Blue headed juvenile centipede. Photo taken in Bukit Barisan national park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Blue headed juvenile centipede. Photo taken in Bukit Barisan national park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

More Centipedes seen HERE Scutigera I find Scutigera quite difficult to shoot well because like harvestmen they have all those bloody legs. So most shots will look something like this:

This is in my opinion is a very poor photograph. The head isn’t a focal point, it is a very flat image, the many legs aren’t shown to the best effect. Come on Paul, get your act together! But what is a photographer to do with these intriguing, disgusting, bizarre creatures??! Taken in Borneo (2009).

Scutigera really benefit from behaviour shots, and close up portraits. Those multifaceted eyes are really nice for closeups. Their front pair of legs are modified into fangs like in all centipedes and so getting these in focus will also be of importance. One of my best photos of a scutigera is this behaviour scene I stumbled across in Borneo.

A moulting scutigera. A rare moment, out of the hundreds of scutigera I have seen, this is the only one I have ever caught moulting, but it makes for a wonderful sight! Now the framing isn’t ideal here, I can probably crop the left hand side without losing anything but it is an interesting photo that begs to be looked at more closely. Bako national park, Borneo (2009).

Two feeding shots now. One good, one mediocre. This first shot is the lesser of the two, it shows a decent angle, and is a good behavioural shot, but it is really missing something to make it interesting. It comes across as pretty flat.

Full bodied pose of a Scutigera feeding. I think that it is the lack of a focal point which causes this photo to lose a lot of its impact. There’s nothing to really pay a lot of attention to. The prey is shown well, it is wrapped up in several of the legs, the dangling pose is nice. But one is left thinking that this shot doesn’t live up to its potential. Maybe an angle from below would have been better? Somewhere in Borneo (2009).

On to the second shot.

A much better shot of Scutigera feeding on a cockroach. Slurping up the insides and leaving nothing but an empty husk. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

This second shot I quite like. The eyes and face are shown to much better effect and the characteristic dangling pose that these animals adopt is shown better as well. The lighting is what makes this shot though. The strong illumination of the head and the areas of interest with a gradually receding light towards the extremities really highlights the action of the photo. The detail of the closeup is always nice too. So, in summary look for these critters at night standing vertically on tree trunks or sometimes suspended from leaves. Try not to disturb them because they are quick! And unlikely to give you a second chance of shooting them. They will either run around and up/down the tree or else drop to the ground. In either case they do not stop like the Amblypygids to offer you many other chances. Of course sometimes you get lucky and you stumble across something that is out of this world in colour or form and then almost any photo you take of it comes out looking great. This was earlier on in my photography and despite the less than ideal angle and image, it still comes out looking fascinating, if not an aesthetic winner.

Purple long-legged centipede (Scutigera) found during a night hike in Maliau basin, Borneo (2009).

Tips for mantids and phasmids (stick insects) I’ll begin by saying, there are others that take much better mantid shots than I do and so it is definitely worth checking out the following photographers because their work is really stunning: Kurt (Orionmystery),

An absolutely gorgeous shot from Kurt (Orionmystery) of a flower mantis. Taken with permission from his photostream.

I do take some shots of these fascinating insects as well though, and here’s the little that I do know: 1) These insects are masters of camouflage! So if you can, try and show them in their natural habitat doing what they do best. However, you also want the detail of the insect to come through so don’t go too far.

A stick insect sprawled across a dead branch. Mulu national park, Borneo (2009).

Lichen mantis. Taken in Vohimana reserve, Madagascar (2012).

2) Some of the most cryptic insects can also have a bright surprise, so poke or move them a little and see if they won’t oblige by showing you some colour. Several things wrong with the below photos. The angle should be more level and less like the photographer shooting from above. The image is also underexposed and the specular highlights from the flash are distracting. Otherwise these shots might have been quite interesting. However, they show interesting behaviour and go well together to tell a story.

Boxer mantis (Hestiasula sp.) seems utterly unremarkable, with its leaf like camouflage. Mulu national park, Borneo (2009).

This is the same boxer mantis (Hestiasula sp.) from above and it is not only aggressive, but has a threatening display if it feels harassed. Mulu national park, Borneo (2009).

3) The best mantid photos that I have seen involve natural light usually with some fill. Otherwise it is easy to wind up with nasty specular reflections like in the above example. Though my shots don’t compare to Kurts’ I’ve taken a few that I am happy with.

Furry legged mantid Natural light with fill flash shot. The overall background and feeling that I had was of softness, accentuated by the hairy legs, so I added to this effect in post processing by decreasing contrast in midtones. Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

“I’ve got an itch right…here” – Bark mantis from Mindo cloud forest, Ecuador (2011).

An exception is dramatic lighting. In this case the flash is used to highlight elements of the insect. Try to make sure that it isn’t against any kind of natural background which will make distracting shadows. I find black or high key backgrounds best since the insect this way really takes centre stage.

Callibia diana praying mantid. Iwokrama rainforest reserve, Guyana (2010).

4) Don’t be afraid to Get close! Stick insects in particular have some incredible details which can be overlooked when trying to encapsulate the entire organism in a single shot. The devil of the subterfuge is in the details. Look at those false fungi! Crazy leaf venations! Whatever it is, show it to good effect.

Close up of this stick insect just reveals an even more impressive design. The false fungi on its abdomen are particularly impressive. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Camouflaged as a stick with fungus on it, the flanges and projections are irregular often mimicking broken tree limbs or wounds. Found during a night walk in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

5) A colourful background can often offset the cryptic colouration of these insects quite well. However below is a failed attempt where I over manipulated the colours and changed them from a dull brown to the technicolour display. This was earlier on when I was enamoured with over saturating the colours. Let below be a cautionary tale of how not to treat an image!

A cryptic mantid (Acanthops falcata) modified in post to be more vibrant. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

6) Portraits are a great style for sticks and mantids. I have been shooting portraits a lot recently and so the style has become a little stagnant for me and I’m looking at new ways to improve on it. But this style shows really well the detail and character of the insect.

Stick insect portraits can look quite lovely. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

A slightly different view taken from below. Here it is really the mouthparts, like a skeletal hand wrapping around the head that takes centre stage. Stick insect portrait taken in Mindo cloud forest, Ecuador (2011).

7) The more the merrier. Stick insects by nature of their motionless behaviour will often have other insects crawling over them. Usually ants, though flies and other insects will occasionally land on them. Try and get behaviour shots, eating or bubble blowing or defensive displays.

Stick insect with a fly for a companion. It is also bubble blowing, possibly to clean its mouthparts. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

8) Try shooting under UV light Depending on the species the results can be quite shockingly different. While most species appear blue under UV, others have a patchwork of colours, with different limbs or protuberances having different fluorescent signatures.

Stick insect under UV light. Taken in Mindo cloud forest, Ecuador (2011).

Stick insect under UV light. Taken in Mindo cloud forest, Ecuador (2011).

More Mantids and Phasmids seen HERE Tips for treehoppers (Membracids) and Leafhoppers (Cicadellids)

Vibrant leafhopper nymph. Taken in the Kanuku mountains, Guyana (2010).

Treehoppers come in a huge diversity of forms and colours. They form symbiotic relationships with ants, display mimicry and are a fascinating group. They are hemipterans and so have a proboscis which they use to suck sap from their host plants on which they can be found most of the time. Once you have found a treehopper feeding on its host plant, make a note of it because it is likely that those species have an established relationship such that where you find one you are likely to find the other. Treehoppers are slow moving, typically standing stock still, making them quite easy subjects to photograph. When they are disturbed they slowly shuffle forward or back along the plant stem. Only a few species startle and fly off (like Oeda inflata seen below). Take your time knowing that they aren’t going anywhere fast. If you do startle them off then consider returning to the same location at a later date or if you know of the same species of plant at a different location then consider checking the leaves at that location.

Always take a closer look! What may appear to be a simple fungus, lichen, algae or plant infection may in fact be a cunning subterfuge. Here the leafhopper nymphs have extruded a waxy substance which they have coated themselves with. Not only does this make them less palatable to predators, but also serves as a means of camouflage. Taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

Always take a closer look! A close-up of the fungus-mimicking leafhopper nymph seen above. Taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

Hoppers are quite small so typically a good portrait will require at least a 1:1 magnification depending on the species. Try to get low and look up to show the facial features.

Alchisme sp. from Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Their small size doesn’t mean that you can neglect composition though. Look at the environment that they are in. Are they sitting on petals or leaves that have a striking colour, pattern or shape? What elements of the background should you include? Hoppers are often associated with ants because they create honeydew waste product from plant sap. Decide whether the image will be stronger with or without these foreigners.

Leafhopper nymph with iridescent tails. The high key nature of the photo helps to make the red eye and colourful body of the leafhopper stand out. The out of focus white elements in the background almost appear cloud-like and help contribute to the soft, ethereal quality of the image. Taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

Oeda inflata treehopper. With beautiful venation on the pronotum which extends like a veil over the back, this is one of the most bizarre treehoppers that I have seen. It is also quite flighty. It doesn’t care to sit on a stem and feed but prefers leaves from what I have seen and they readily take off when feeling threatened. Found during a night hike at the Kurupukari crossing, Guyana (2010).

Tips for Caterpillars, butterflies and moths

False-eyed hawkmoth caterpillar under natural light. Taken in Vohimana reserve, Madagascar (2012).

Daytime and night time shooting methods will differ and will dictate the kind of shot you will aim for. Butterflies generally rest at night and so this is the best time for closeups of eyes, and scales. However, they are not at their best compositionally. They usually hang out during these times on the undersides of leaves, not against the bright flowers of the day. A greater diversity of moths are seen at night due to their attraction to lights. However, because they often rest on the lights and human made structures, the unnatural environment detracts from the image. The corollary is also true though, that moths are best shot during the day when they can be found asleep on trees or on the undersides of leaves. Caterpillars can be shot day or night. The former is probably preferable so as to take advantage of natural light and softer background colours. Look at the key features of the caterpillar and let that determine your shot. Some are spiky others have eyes or flash/threatening markers, get the shot that shows these to greatest effect. One generality is that shooting from below and getting a ‘rearing’ caterpillar usually makes for an interesting pose (like that seen below). However it can be difficult, and time consuming. Don’t lose hope if you still don’t have that great image after 100s of wasted shots. I took probably a couple hundred shots before I was happy with the below shot (and in retrospect I still feel like I could have done better). I maneuvered the leaf around, the caterpillar would climb to one end, rear up for  a second, decide where to go and then spend a minute traveling to the other end of the leaf where it would do the same. I had a guide hold the leaf and the flashlight focusing on the caterpillar while I tried to maneuver into position. Lots of out of focus shots, lots of almost shots, be patient and you will be rewarded.

It took a while and many out of focus shots, but finally got this caterpillar rearing up for ‘the shot’. Here the contrast of the reds/oranges and greens are shown to good effect. The most important part, the face is in focus, but so too are the legs and the spines.  Turtle mountain, Guyana (2010).

Below, the colours take centre stage. And even though there is no view of the eyes or head, the spines show such detail that they essentially become the focal point and are pleasing to the eye.

Coloured spiky caterpillar. Here the complementation of the background colours with those of the subject make for a pleasing composition despite the lack of a conventional head shot. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

In my experience water droplets usually add a very pleasant fairytale-like quality to any image. Here they collect on the fine urticating hairs of the caterpillar. They add a real dynamism to the image because they render parts out of focus and magnify other parts. They cause diffraction and so can change the expected colours. It really adds interest to the image. So if you go early in the morning to get those dew shots or immediately during or after a rain, you might get some real magical shots.

The colours and drops together with the frontal portrait make this one of my favourite caterpillar shots. Iwokrama, Guyana (2010).

Caterpillars as you know are very slow moving insects. So they have been required to evolve defenses. These include urticating hairs, aposematic colours, mimicry, etc…They also have a love/hate relationship with ants. At times they are farmed by ants at other times they are attacked and eaten. These behaviours are particularly interesting to capture if you can.

The relationship between the ants massaging the caterpillar for the excreted honey dew works in conjunction with the colours to make this a nice shot. Pantiacolla lodge, Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Despite being beautiful butterflies and moths are quite hard to shoot well. It isn’t that the subject isn’t beautiful, in focus or doesn’t have pretty colours. Rather it is the same static and monotonous perspective which is essentially the same in the majority of shots. For example the first shot below. The perspective is slightly overhead, and with the subject dead centre in the frame. The butterfly ‘market’ is overrun with these kinds of shots. So, how do we make it better? Tricky! Because as soon as we start to stray away from the side portrait and get unconventional angles, we are also not displaying the wing markings to their best effect. So it relies chiefly on the external composition ie. the background and colour complementation. Below is a comparison of 2 shots. One is your standard shot displaying a butterfly with nice markings but otherwise a forgettable photo. The second uses lighting complementation, the bokeh from the aperture which is carefully place behind the subject, and an element of interest (emergence from the chrysalis) which all combine to make for a beautiful presentation. 1)

Your typical open winged butterfly shot that is very ho-hum, nothing special. Looking around 95% of shots are like this. Yeah, nice colours but it really isn’t a standout! Manu national park, Peru (2010).


Emerging butterfly (Brassolis sophorae). Taken in Bilsa reserve, Ecuador (2011).

I don’t feel that butterflies benefit from closeups as well as a lot of other insects. The beautiful iridescent scales taken at high mag. is a notable exception. But headshots I don’t feel offer that same beauty as other groups. But maybe I just haven’t found the right cooperative subject.

Butterfly eyes taken at 4x mag. Cute but not really of great interest. I personally prefer full/near full body shots for butterflies/moths. Iwokrama reserve, Guyana (2010).

Flying insects have the distinct benefit of being able to get that difficult yet very satisfying in-flight shot. Now as most of my macro is taken at night I haven’t been able to experiment with this as extensively as I would like, and so I have a pretty poor selection of my own to present. However, for some sensational in-flight shots you can visit Linden G.’s  photostream on flickr seen here: A  beautiful example is that of the mud dauber wasp carrying mud to aid in the construction of its nest.

Better than my attempts it is wonderfully composed, shows behaviour and the colour reproduction is great. Taken with permission from Linden.G’s flickr photostream.

Note however that he has special equipment (ultra fast shutters and infrared trip beams) helping him achieve these fantastic results. So don’t feel disappointed if your efforts don’t yield the same quality. My limited attempts have produced this serviceable shot below. The trick is to chose a subject that engages in a stereotyped behaviour such that you can predict where to place yourself to maximize your chances of getting a satisfactory photo. The wasp above was taken with Linden poised in front of the nest monitoring the wasps moving in and out on their daily errands. The hawkmoth below was visiting all of the flowers of a particular plant species (Lantana camra). Therefore I was able to position myself in front of one flower that hadn’t yet been visited. You will want to place the settings on hi-continuous shooting and depending on whether you want their to be motion blur or not choose a high or medium shutter speed. To get a slight motion of the wings my shutter speed was 1/160 sec. I opened up the aperture to f/8. A compromise between wanting sufficient light and maximizing the depth of field because of the rapid side to side/up and down movement of the subject I couldn’t guarantee that it would be in the same focus plane between the moment I saw it in the viewfinder and I clicked the image. Therefore to hedge my bets I simply took a smaller aperture.

Bee hawkmoth (Cephanodes sp.). Taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

Get creative. Below is an image of a chrysalis taken at night which I backlit with a flashlight. This enabled all of the details of the venation to be seen with great clarity in addition to presenting an almost radioactive green, not commonly seen in nature photos.

Backlit chrysalis. Taken in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar (2011).

Moth tips coming soon

Wasp mimicking moth with warning aposematic colouration. Winfield, B.C. Canada (2011).

Tips for snakes and vipers I abhor zoos/aquariums and can’t abide by supporting them directly or indirectly through my photography, hence, all these shots were taken in their natural environment.

Amazonian palm pit viper (Bothriopsis bilineata) Taken with the mpe-65mm, that means about 3 in. clearance in this shot from Pantiacolla amazon lodge, Peru (2010).

Sumatran pit viper (Trimeresurus sumatranus). Taken with 100mm macro from about 1 foot away. Taken in Bako national park, Borneo (2008).

Amazonian palm pit viper (Bothriopsis bilenata) taken in Pantiacolla amazon lodge, Peru (2010).

Bornean leaf nosed viper (Trimeresurus sumatranus). Taken with 100mm macro from about 1 foot away. Poked and prodded into the proper position. Taken in Mulu camp 5, Borneo (2009).

Green vine snake (Oxybelis fulgidus) taken with 100mm macro from 1 foot away. Taken in Tambopata lodge, Peru (2010).

Some people might be tempted to say yeah, just use a longer lens. A valid point. But this is inadequate in several regards. First it may give too much working distance. In the jungle, there is often not a lot of space between overlapping foliage and so the more distance between you and your subject the more likely you will get some interference. Secondly, this limits your viewing angles and compositional perspectives. With a 100mm macro, if I wanted, I could get on top, or from the side or below, a 200mm and beyond, if I get on the ground there will inevitably be a log obscuring my view, and I don’t want to climb several meters into a tree if there even is one for a shot. Thirdly I can get a sense for the snake itself increased distance between you and your subject physically will probably show up in the photo as an unintimate portrait. However, getting close enough to feel the flick of the tongue on your cheek, you get a real feel and respect for the creature you are photographing which can’t help but show in your shots. Also less flash power is used and in my opinion, the animal actually grows less stressed over a long shooting period. 1) Be careful! wear long rubber boots and approach slowly and with care. Snakes can strike from 1/2 their body length away. This isn’t taking into account their movement either. So to be safe, as soon as you get within one body length, treat it as a potentially hazardous situation. 2) Read the signs of the body language. A snake that is constantly flicking its tongue is generally aggravated. It is wanting to update its chemosensory information second by second to be ready for anything. It is thus extremely alert and in a high state of tension. You might be tempted to grab a shot of it with its tongue darting out during this time, but you should probably wait until it calms down or else avoid it completely. Though this is species dependent I have noticed this especially with the fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). Other species might seem exceptionally calm and this too can be a danger signal. Basically read the signs. 3) Try and keep something in between you and the snake. I generally use an umbrella with a hole cut in it for the lens. If the snake pounces, the hope is that it will go for the umbrella. The tension from the metal hinges is enough to repel the force of the strike. It is also compact and multi purpose. If the snake is on the ground I might approach it very slowly with my boot out, heel forwards to gauge the temperament of the snake. So that if it lunges, it will (hopefully) hit the boot and not my leg. For non-venomous snakes

Smooth slug eating snake (Aplopeltura boa). Photo taken in Bukit Barisan national park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Copyright Paul Bertner 2013.

Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus). Taken in Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Jasper’s cat snake (Boiga jaspidae). Taken in Maliau Basin, Borneo (2009).

Green vine snake (Oxybelis brevirostris) displaying defensive gaping behaviour. Bilsa reserve, Ecuador coastal rainforest (2011).

More Reptiles seen HERE I’m almost reluctant to give this tip away because it’s that good! Snakes sense their environment via highly chemosensitive tongues which direct scent molecules to receptor neurons by constantly flicking their tongues. However capturing a snake with its tongue out (which seems to be the goal of most snake photos) can prove to be a challenge. Thus I have found that by exhaling in front of the snake you can prompt it into a flurry of tongue flicking as it attempts to pick up on the new and interesting smells from your breath. This technique takes the guesswork out of trying to catch it with its tongue out and increases your odds of getting a better shot. Tips for Amphibians It is truly the rare moment that you can get a behaviour shot for an amphibian or reptile for that matter, and so one must usually make do with just compositional poses.

Male poison arrow frogs carry their tadpoles to a water source where they will deposit them. In some species the vigilance over their brood extends until the tadpoles metamorphosize into froglets. Poison arrow frog (Amreega sp.), Bilsa reserve, Ecuador coastal rainforest (2011).

The most important thing is to look at the behaviour, if you can, spend several minutes observing the amphibian before you take the shot. Look at how it moves, is it slow or fast, erratic or deliberate, flexible or inflexible, these will all help you to compose your shot (provided you have enough time). Treefrogs usually have very flexible limbs because they regularly stretch from one tree branch to another. They don’t hop so much in the forest canopy, they walk. How do you cover greater distances, you have longer limbs. The best shots I see of these usually have them at full stretch and if not show an unusual pose like limbs bent upon each other to show this flexibility.

Reinwardt’s treefrog (Rhacophorus Reinwardtii). Maliau basin, Borneo (2009).

Monkey treefrog (Phyllomedusa tomopterna). Jatun Sacha, Tena, Ecuadorian lowland Amazon (2011).

Have them looking into the camera for the front on portrait. In my experience this gives a more interesting shot than a side profile which comes across as too documentary, scientific style.


File-eared frog (Polypedates otilophus). Taken in Loagan Bunut, Borneo (2008).

Frog found during a night hike in Vohimana, Madagascar (2012).

With most insects but amphibians and reptiles in particular, there is the temptation to get the whole animal squeezed into the frame. Break this habit! If you focus on a particular part of the animal like the webbed feet, or the eyes or the skin it can be a much more interesting photo.

Here the rugosity of the skin is shown to greatest benefit by the closeup of the head. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Focus on that part of the animal which is unusual. Display it to best advantage based on the angle you have chosen.

Polk-a-dot treefrog (Hypsiboas punctatus). Here the focus is on the imperfectness of nature, and one can clearly see the deformation in the pupil of the left eye. However, I chose the front on portrait style rather than an angle that only took in the deformed eye, so that you could clearly see the comparison between the two eyes, making the visual impact a lot stronger. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Combine these points when you can, don’t just be satisfied with a behaviour shot, if you can do more!

Reinwardt’s treefrogs in amplexus (Rhacophorus reinwardtii). This is one of my early photos before I really got into photography, but it shows the amplexus, mating behaviour. But also displays the prominent webbed feet of these beautiful amphibians which splay outwards when they jump, allowing them to glide between trees in the forest canopy. Maliau basin, Borneo (2009).

Males are generally preferable to females! Why? Because they call a lot more frequently. This makes it a) more likely to find b) more likely to get a picture with their vocal sacs inflated which really improves the photo significantly! So if you haven’t gotten a shot of a vocalizing frog, go out and get one, because it is extremely rewarding!

Male vocalizing poison arrow frog (Dendrobates macero). Pantiacolla lodge, Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Try to get low viewing angles looking upwards. This is especially key for ground dwelling species. Why? Creates dynamism. Frogs on the ground are almost always shot from above, this means that 99% of shots of that frog will be shot from a bird’s eye view, or at a strong overhead angle, and look similar and disinteresting. Get down on the jungle floor and point upwards!

This frog isn’t particularly special. Doesn’t have any beautiful colouration, etc. but I like this shot from a compositional perspective. Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Histrionic poison arrow frog (Oophaga sylvaticus). The low perspective of this shot makes it much more intimate. The colours show how bright the frog is and yet how it is also able to blend in. Bilsa reserve, Ecuadorian coastal rainforest (2011).

Get an unusual angle! Play with your depth of fields, try new things, who knows what you will come up with.

Polk-a-dot treefrog (Hypsiboas punctatus). Manu national park, Peru (2010).

Malaysian horned frog (Megophrys nasuta). Photo taken in Gunung Leuser national park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Paul Bertner 2013.

More Amphibians seen HERE How I shoot Macro Here I will simply focus on the aspects where I feel that I differ from most other shooters. I freehand a lot of my shots. This means that not only do I not use a tripod, but I also don’t use a lot of bracing techniques, holding onto a leaf and resting my lens on my hand, or holding a pole with the same hand as my camera. All those techniques stabilize the camera. I am able to freehand up to the maximum 5x magnification on my mpe. But this requires 1) a lot of patience 2) A lot of out of focus frames 3) You don’t always get the exact framing that you want 4) You need to take a LOT of pictures to get one that you like. With all these cons, you wouldn’t be remiss in asking why I don’t change my shooting style. Well, 1) I like the freedom of being without some form of support. 2) It is good practice for when you don’t have any supports available eg. you’re on location and can’t find a good support stick. 3) This enables you to shoot at a distance, extending your arms and using liveview mode. 4) It allows you to shoot in different environments, I can shoot almost as easily in a tree, in the water, etc. as on the ground. 5) In the jungle I try and minimize what I carry around with me, a stick is one more thing I don’t need. 6) A stick or pole is just one more thing that you have to pay attention to. If it slips, or is tilted at a bad angle this can scare away the more skittish species. 7) Sometimes it can be the only way. A lot of insects will fly/jump away if you touch the leaf or branch that they are on. However, they are usually much more forgiving if you don’t move them and so you can shoot away. I will shoot in all manual mode, from the flash down to all the independent settings. Although it can be hard I try not to get locked into a specific configuration. My preferred shooting settings are ISO 100, 1/200sec, f/11. However I frequently change these as the scene necessitates. If there is a chance to get more natural light into a scene I will use a lower flash power as fill, bump up the ISO, lower the shutter speed and play with the aperture as necessary. I try and look for interesting compositions and try to get a least one shot from an angle I’ve never tried before on each shoot. This isn’t always successful but it makes you flexible and it helps keep you from falling into a pattern of always getting the same old stuff by which your ‘style’ is generally known.

Ant mimicking Alydidae nymph. This is one of my more normal compositions, a profile shot, showing the flower it is resting on to good effect. However, let’s try something different and see if we can’t add a little dynamism which I feel is lacking here. Taken in Iwokrama, Guyana (2010).

Here is an Alydidae adult resting on a flower. The overhead angle isn’t one I usually use, neither is positioning the insect in the centre of the frame. However, here I think that the two work. Iwokrama reserve, Guyana (2010).

I have a few favourite positions for different critters, but that doesn’t stop me from trying something new for each of them. I shot a wood louse and after doing all the usual for 15 minutes I struggled to get underneath it, and got an unusual angle from the bottom.

Wood louse on grass. Now there is absolutely nothing wrong with this shot, in fact I really like it. But to me, it constitutes my regular shooting style and angles. A habit I try and break every shoot. Kurupukari, Guyana (2010).

This shot shows the prominent ridges and segmentation and I feel is a very different kind of shot that I am happy with for an altogether different reason. Experimental This will be a running entry showcasing some stuff that I’m working on trying to hone and make better. Pictures will be of varying quality as I improve or simply decide to abandon a technique or style. The photos under this section might seem altogether ‘normal’ to anyone else, but they mark a departure from my conventional style and hence will fall under experimental for me personally. Each entry will be accompanied by a short blurb on what it was I was trying to achieve. Any advice on how I might improve a particular style or effect would be very much appreciated. UV light

Photo was taken with a Nichia 365nm UV flashlight. These photos must be taken in the dark, otherwise the the light will overwhelm the UV fluorescence. Shot on a tripod with mirror lock up and 2sec self timer. Shutter speed was 30 seconds, aperture f/9, Iso 200 and no flash. While the shutter is open I painted the subject with the UV beam, careful to illuminate as evenly as possible the entire subject. One must choose a subject that does not move for at least 15-30 seconds to get a blur free image. Harvestman with moth prey. Found during night hikes in Bellavista cloud rainforest reserve, Ecuador (2011).

I had already known that material in the chitin of scorpions fluoresced when exposed to UV light, however, thanks to Techuser on flickr for the idea of using UV on harvestmen. Here shows the use of a tripod using 15 and 30 second long exposures, while minimizing ISO’s to 100-400. The results are much cleaner than previous attempts. Here, any movement will result in fairly poor results. UV light was in the 365nm wavelength. This provides a more naturalistic lighting that minimizes the purple colour cast of 400nm + wavelengths, though the latter definitely have an interesting look. Furthermore this wavelength seems to make create a brighter fluorescence, enabling shorter exposure times. The reason is for this UV fluorescence is a little unclear. Some insects see in UV and so it might help in species differentiation or mate selection. Snakes, birds and other predators can also see in UV so perhaps the brightness reflects aposematism in nocturnal predators in a similar way to how bright colours in the visible spectrum do to diurnal predators. Harvestmen use a variety of defenses including aposematism, stridulation and chemical defenses to ward off predators and so it seems feasible that such fluorescence might fulfill a similar role. Though the accentuation of patterns on the dorsum and posterior might be more reflective of mate selection since many harvestmen will perch up high and with relatively poor vision, such brightness might help them find a mate. Some other insects that I have found to reflect UV are some leaf mimicking katydids, centipedes (Scolopendra), some crab backed orbweavers (Micrathena sp.), some caterpillars, scorpions, some stick insects, some grasshoppers/katydids…quite a broad spectrum really. Though like mimetism UV fluorescence seems to change with the life cycle, either becoming stronger of weaker with age depending on the species. For example one individual of a possible new genus of millipede that I found fluoresced red under UV though others didn’t.  Update 10/11/2013

Scorpions are the original ‘blacklight bugs’. They respond very strongly to UV light and unlike a lot of other insects they don’t require the lengthy exposure times needed to bring out that fluorescence.

Chrysalis under UV light. Many insects display UV fluorescence and this can sometimes come in unexpected and spectacular forms! Here, purples, blues and greens predominate although reds, yellows and other colours can also sometimes be found. UV fluorescence can appear in odd places, so it is always worthwhile to experiment and briefly inspect each subject you encounter with a brief UV pulse.


I tried to do a panning shot to capture the movement of the ants. This was made extremely difficult by the low light, the erratic speed of the leafcutters and the slope of the terrain. This is the best of about 200 shots. I plan on taking more because I think that one could get a really awesome shot if one were to get the speed of the panning just right. Tukeit, Guyana (2010).

Moonlight effect

This was an experiment with light. I had one flash mounted above the subject aimed directly down to light up the watery surface of the leaf, and one aimed directly up from below the leaf, to spill around it and light up the outline of the cockroach. I sharpened it as much as possible in the hopes of introducing halos to further the effect. Hopefully the effect seen is that of a cockroach that appears to be vaguely lit by a full moon. Taken in Guyana (2010).

Update 10/11/2013

“Caterpillar by moonlight” – This photo was the result of quite a bit of experimentation. What could be mistaken for the moon is actually my flashlight. Getting the proper distance between the subject and the flashlight, as well as the strength of the flashlight power are both crucial ingredients in making a realistic and well composed photo. The subject should also be chosen with care. Here the long hairs which glow with the flashlight work well with the backlight.

Sunrise effect

This shot was taken at night believe it or not. It required mostly just a lot of manual dexterity. I didn’t use flash either! I held the flashlight behind the frog and with the same hand, held the leaf behind it. I let the flashlight shine through my fingers on high power so that it gave the reddish glow. I had to maneuver the flashlight, fingers, leaf all with one hand while shooting with the other. This gave me a uniform reddish glow. Okay, but I want the sunrise! So I slightly splayed my fingers to let the more intense light through, but only at the bottom of the shot. At the top I kept my fingers held gradually tighter. This led to the gradation seen in a usual sunrise. Iwokrama reserve, Guyana (2010).

Bright backgrounds by night Focus Stacks Coming soon . . .

Questions anyone?


More to come

25 Responses to Photography: Tips, tricks and techniques

  1. Peggy says:

    Wow, your shots are sensational and your fascination with insects really shines through, therefore making viewing even more interesting. There’s a ton of information here to digest so I’m going to nibble off small bits here and there. Great job putting this blog together!

  2. pbertner says:

    Thanks for the support Peggy, if you have any questions in particular that you would like me to address I can do my best or maybe refer you to someone who can.


  3. Peggy says:

    Just thought I’d drop you a note…I’m off to Costa Rica in a few weeks so wanted to bone up on my jungle photography by visiting your site. In particular I’m hoping to photograph frogs. May I ask what kind of flash you use? I don’t even own an off-camera flash yet but am considering buying one before the trip. I suppose I really need one, especially since I also like to shoot without a tripod.

    I was also wondering what “extra-floral nectary” means…never heard of it!

  4. pbertner says:

    Hi Peggy,

    Great to hear that you will be exploring the jungle. I’ve heard great things about Costa Rica, especially the Osa peninsula if you get a chance. I use a combination of techniques usually brought on by equipment failure at one point or another. My first choice is a macro twin flash mt-24EX. But when that’s not possible I use an off-shoe canon 580EX.

    You have several options though; 1) An ideal option is if your camera has an in-built flash, then you should check to see if it allows for master and slave function. This allows your in camera flash to control an exterior flash by means of an infrared signature signal. When one flash goes, so too does the other, this means you can avoid the cable altogether. But you will have to check for compatibility of both flashes.
    2) You can either use an off shoe camera cord (OCE3 for canon) or a PC synch cord to trigger the flash remotely. The latter option is less expensive. You will probably want some kind of bracket or hydrostatic arm to hold the flash in place though as it can be difficult to focus at the same time as holding your flash with your other hand. If buying the OCE3, go for the OEM manufacturer. Third party knockoffs tend to be of cheap construction. I bought a Meike brand for $20 and the electrical contacts promptly came loose and was not salvageable.
    3) This requires just a little creativity on your part. If you have an inbuilt flash all you need to do is get some cardboard and cut lengths to fit your flash. A snoot is basically a tunnel meant to convey the light from your flash as close as possible to the subject you are shooting with as little light loss as possible. Therefore they usually look very roughly like this: < . The insides are lined with something like aluminum foil to prevent light loss, and the end of the tunnel has some kind of diffusion material. If you google snoot, you will find all kinds of ideas. This option is the cheapest, you just need to make sure that it doesn't fall apart while you are traveling.

    As for 'extra-floral nectary' it is basically a source of nectar that doesn't occur within a flower. Flowers have nectaries to entice insects and birds to feed at their flower sites. While these animals are feeding, they often plant pollen or seeds on these animals to ensure pollination and distribution, respectively. Nectar is sugar rich and therefore requires a substantial amount of energy investment by the plant but it is worth it if it can attract its pollinator. Extra-floral nectaries occur outside of the the flower itself and therefore aren't associated with pollination but encourage ants to guard the nectaries which are a valuable commodity. The extra floral nectaries are spread out along the plant so that ants essentially patrol the entire plant. If other insects attempt to eat the flowers, nectaries or leaves of the plant the ants will respond and shoe off these predators.

    Hope this was helpful,

  5. Peggy says:

    Thanks so much for your in-depth reply, Paul! I am indeed going to the Osa peninsula…that’s where we’ll be spending most of our time. I was there three years ago and fell in love with the place. As a matter of fact, I even brought home a stray dog from there (named Osa now), but that’s a whole other story!

    I have a Canon 7D and it allows for master and slave functions as you mentioned. I still haven’t decided whether or not to buy a flash.

    In any case, I like your option #3 and will experiment with that before leaving. As I mentioned, I have very little experience with flashes. I don’t like how animals’ eyes turn red when using the in-camera flash and so tend to avoid it although I notice I can usually boost the lighting just a little without an animal getting red-eye if I’m far enough away.

    Thanks for the explanation about nectaries…I’ll be on the lookout for them now! Interesting that I’ve never noticed them before.

    Well, thanks again for your informative post. I’ll let you know if I have any luck with the macro photography on my trip. I’m primarily interested in bird photography but your work in particular has inspired me to do a little more macro.

  6. Dave says:

    Great photos and probably the best treatment on photography of tropical insects at night that I have come across. As an entomologist, macro-photographer and afficianado of tropical wildlife I really appreciate all of the effort you have put into this article. Many of the techniques and issues you detail are familiar to me but there are also many new ideas and perspectives that you have introduced to me. At times I feel that I have come to a creative standstill with macro photography and this has given me new enthusiasm and things to try on my next jungle adventure. Ironically also to the Osa penninsula like the previous commenter.

    Maybe one night we will see each other’s flashes as we each seek out the next incredible arthropod photo :)

    • pbertner says:

      Hi Dave,
      Thanks for dropping by and leaving such a flattering comment. Glad that I can be of some assistance. I strongly recommend bringing along a UV light, which can be picked up for $10 on ebay. It’s amazing the number of species that exhibit fluorescence. I’ve seen it in everything from caterpillars to katydids. If you want to catch it on film I would urge the use of a tripod since it generally requires fairly long exposure times.

      What kind of system do you use? What interests? I haven’t been to Costa Rica myself but have a number of friends that have and that have some good recommendations if you haven’t been there before.
      Have a great trip in any case.

      Best regards,

  7. Dave says:

    Hi Paul

    I was planning on bringing along a UV flashlight for scorpion spotting but after seeing your harvestman shot I’m pumped to give it a try on other arthropods as well. I have a bright one watt model but it is 400nm not 365nm as the one you recommend and it uses CR123 batteries so I might just spring for the Nischia model you recommend though it is rather pricey.

    I too use manual flash (cheap lightweight models) for most of my insect shots though with the high ISO performance of newer DSLRs I have been practicing more natural light macro photography. I use a handmade flash bracket modeled after John Shaw’s version most of the time but recently have been experimenting with another homemade design with 2 lightweight flashes. Though not ideal I have settled on optical triggers for firing the off camera flash using the popup as the master. This requires lenses with manual aperture settings (at least on Pentax DSLRs) to trigger correctly (forces the popup to fire in full manual mode; no pre-flash).

    My interests in photography are primarily natural history subjects from landscapes to minute insects and everything in-between although insect macros are where I concentrate the majority of my efforts. I am interested in all types of terrestrial arthropods so I shoot whatever I come across.

    If you want to discuss things in greater detail please fell free to email me.


    • pbertner says:

      Hey Dave,

      Don’t worry about the wavelength of the UV light. I found that 365nm simply shed less of a purple cast of light, but it’s not really necessary to get the fluorescence as you know.

      Have you considered either an off shoe camera cord or PC synch cord. Might be an alternative to using the onboard flash as the trigger.

      You might consider adding a small compact mirror to your list of accessories. This is good for mostly reptiles. If you show this to an anole chances are that the male will start to perform dominance displays and extend the dewlap.


  8. Dave says:

    Hi Paul
    Thanks for the suggestions. I’ve used synch cords in the past with film cameras but the small flashes I am using for macro have very high trigger voltages that could damage the DSLR camera circuits. My other thought on this was to get wireless RF triggers. However these add weight and more batteries to the mix so maybe not. What I’ve found with the method I’m using is that the onboard flash has little effect on lighting the scene because it points too high for a close up shot and is often shaded by the lens (though in some cases the background benefits from some additional lighting).


  9. Johan says:

    Really handy, thank you. Nice to see a page that has such insights into the stalking bit

  10. pbertner says:


    I guess if it ain’t broke don’t fix it. Sounds like you’ve got a system that works for you and tinkering might help though it sounds like the benefits would probably be marginal. My advice though is to do whatever experimenting technically (not creatively) now before you go, since sometimes toying with your system while traveling screws it up and then you’re left with the damage for the rest of your trip, seriously hampering your photo taking. Onboard flashes aren’t given nearly enough credit in my opinion. People go for strong flashes, specialized macro flashes and while these certainly add to the convenience factor I in no way consider them necessary.

    This guy: last I heard actually uses an onboard flash with a homemade snoot of cardboard and tin foil to achieve his amazing results.

    Johan- Thanks for the comment it is very appreciated. If you are looking for any advice in particular please don’t be shy in asking.

    Take care,

  11. Mark says:

    Well done Paul. A fascinating stream of creatures and behaviours across a spectrum of colour and form. Wonderful stuff and good work mate.

    Haven’t been on FM much lately but , yes, I still use the snoot/diffuser for on board flash.

    • Mark says:

      PS I might get to Kakadu Nat Pk after this wet season and perhaps see some of our more exotic cousins.

      • pbertner says:

        Thanks for the compliments Mark. It’s amazing the results that you achieve with your diffuser method. I’m always amazed at the solutions people come up with. Recently forwarded a link about sensor cleaning. Amazing the kind of scare tactics that the camera companies employ to get you to professionally service, or else buy expensive products when Q-tips and a blower will do.

        I would love to see pictures from the national park. I really hope that you get the chance to get out there!

        Best wishes,

  12. I’m an amateur photographer. You have such marvelous photography skills. I’m totally impressed. Thanks for sharing your tips and techniques. Learnt a lot by just reading your blog. Thank you so much for the inspiration to become a better photographer. Cheers… :))

  13. Doreen says:

    Absolutely breathtaking! Uplifting to see that the world is your oyster!
    You are true inspiration!

  14. Wow, superb weblog format! How lengthy have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is great, let alone the content!

  15. pbertner says:

    Hi all, thanks for the kind comments! Sorry I haven’t had a chance to answer sooner, I’ve been in hopping between national parks in Madagascar.

    I’ve been blogging for a little over a year, but very sporadically. I thought that blogging would be more difficult than it is. It really is quite simple and it’s modular, so you just keep on adding to the webpage as you learn more and more about the design and the interface. I basically just started posting with pictures, and then gradually added the menus, and widgets and background. The design I use is twenty-ten which I have found to have the most functions that I desire. If you’re thinking about starting a blog I would be happy to share any experiences/difficulties/tips that I have learned along the way.

    Cheers and happy new year from Madagascar,

  16. GG says:

    Your photos are great. I am learning to take insect macros too. But encountered a lot of problems. Your photos gave me great motivation to go on. I simply love your blog

    • pbertner says:

      Glad that you enjoy it and many thanks for the compliments. Sorry for the delay in response, I’ve been a tad busy. I haven’t updated in a very long time but I’m hoping to get back into it. If you need any help or guidance I’d be happy to help either publicly or by email.


  17. says:

    I personally had to present this unique article, “Photography: Tips, tricks and techniques
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    I personallyonly wished to distribute ur remarkable publishing!
    Thank you, Lamar

    • pbertner says:

      Wow, a lot of time has passed since I noticed this. I try and respond to most messages but my lifestyle can get in the way. In any case thanks for the compliments and best wishes.


  18. Your lovely Phoneutria is P. fera going by the location in the Guyanas and the ventral abdominal pattern (brown/cream with darker brown spots). P.nigriventer has a totally black ventral abdomen (hence name nigri-venter), though reddish when juvenile, and from SE Brazil and Argentina. Anyway, fabulous photos, great talent and skill !

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